1.Benbow, SM. The role of electroconvulsive therapy in the treatment of depressive illness in old age. Br J Psychiatry 1989; 155: 147–52.
2.Johnstone, EC, Deakin, JF, Lawler, P, et al.The Northwick Park electroconvulsive therapy trial. Lancet 1980; ii: 1317–20.
3.Brandon, S, Cowley, P, McDonald, Cet al.Electroconvulsive therapy: results in depressive illness from the Leicestershire trial. BMJ 1984; 288: 22–5.
4.Buchan, H, Johnstone, E, McPherson, K, Palmer, RL, Crow, TJ, Brandon, S. Who benefits from electroconvulsive therapy? Combined results of the Leicester and Northwick Park trials. Br J Psychiatry 1992; 160: 355–59.
5.Mulsant, BH, Rosen, J, Thornton, JE, Zubenko, GS. A prospective naturalistic study of electroconvulsive therapy in late-life depression. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 1991; 4: 3–13.
6.Hale, AS. ABC of mental health: Depression. BMJ 1997; 515: 43–6.
7.Freeman, CP, ed. The ECT Handbook. The Second Report of the Royal College of Psychiatrists' Special Committee on ECT. London: Royal College of Psychiatrists, 1995.
8.Sobin, C, Prudic, J, Devanand, DP, Nobler, MS, Sackeim, HA. Who responds to electroconvulsive therapy. A comparison of effective and ineffective forms of treatment. Br J Psychiatry 1996; 169: 322–8.
9.O'Leary, D, Gill, D, Gregory, S, Shawcross, C. Which depressed patients respond to ECT. The Nottingham results. J Affect Disord 1995; 33:245–50.
10.World Health Organisation. The 10th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. Geneva: WHO, 1992.
11.Alexopoulos, GSet al.Recovery in geriatric depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1996; 53: 305–12.
12.Keller, MB, Herman, GL, Lavori, PW, Fawcett, JA, Coryell, W, Endicott, J. Treatment received by depressed patients. J Am Med Assoc 1982; 248:1848–55.
13.Burvill, PW, Mowry, B, Hall, WD. Quantification of physical illness in psychiatric research in the elderly. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 1990; 5:161–70.
14.Joffe, RT, Kellner, CH. The role of ECT in refractory depression. Convulsive Ther 1995; 11: 77–9.
15.Prudic, Jet al.Resistance to antidepressant medications and short-term clinical response to ECT. Am J Psychiatry 1996; 153: 985–92.
16.Alexopoulos, GS, Shamoian, CJ, Lucas, J, Weiser, N, Berger, H. Medical problems of geriatric psychiatric patients and younger controls during electroconvulsive therapy. J Am Geriatr Soc 1984; 32: 651–54.
17.Price, TR, McAllister, . Safety and efficacy of ECT in depressed patients with dementia: A review of clinical experience. Convulsive Ther 1989; 5: 61–74.