Skip to main content Accessibility help

Childhood trauma and functional disability in psychosis, bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder: a review of the literature

  • J. Cotter (a1), M. Kaess (a2) and A. R. Yung (a1) (a3)



We aimed to examine the association between childhood trauma and functional impairment in psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder, to speculate on possible mechanisms that underlie this association and discuss the implications for clinical work.


Narrative review of the peer-reviewed English language literature in the area.


High rates of childhood trauma in psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder were identified. This was associated with impaired social and occupational functioning in both the premorbid and established phases of each of these psychiatric disorders over and above the deficits typically observed in these populations. Possible mechanisms mediating this relationship include neurocognitive deficits, insecure attachment, higher rates of comorbidities and problems with adherence and response to treatment.


Routine clinical inquiry about childhood maltreatment should be adopted within mental health settings. This has potentially important treatment implications for identifying those individuals at elevated risk of functional disability. While there is no clear guidance currently available on how to target childhood trauma in the treatment of psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder or borderline personality disorder, there are several promising lines of enquiry and further research is warranted.


Corresponding author

*Address for correspondence: J. Cotter, Institute of Brain, Behaviour and Mental Health, University of Manchester, Room 3.306, Jean McFarlane Building, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK. (Email:


Hide All
Aas, M, Dazzan, P, Mondelli, V, Melle, I, Murray, RM, Pariante, CM (2014). A systematic review of cognitive function in first-episode psychosis, including a discussion on childhood trauma, stress, and inflammation. Frontiers in Psychiatry 4, 182.
Aas, M, Navari, S, Gibbs, A, Mondelli, V, Fisher, HL, Morgan, C, Morgan, K, MacCabe, J, Reichenberg, A, Zanelli, J, Fearon, P, Jones, PB, Murray, RM, Pariante, CM, Dazzan, P (2012a). Is there a link between childhood trauma, cognition, and amygdala and hippocampus volume in first-episode psychosis? Schizophrenia Research 137, 7379.
Aas, M, Steen, NE, Agartz, I, Aminoff, SR, Lorentzen, S, Sundet, K, Andreassen, OA, Melle, I (2012b). Is cognitive impairment following early life stress in severe mental disorders based on specific or general cognitive functioning? Psychiatry Research 198, 495500.
Addington, J, Stowkowy, J, Cadenhead, KS, Cornblatt, BA, McGlashan, TH, Perkins, DO, Seidman, LJ, Tsuang, MT, Walker, EF, Woods, SW, Cannon, TD (2013). Early traumatic experiences in those at clinical high risk for psychosis. Early Intervention in Psychiatry 7, 300305.
Afifi, TO, Mather, A, Boman, J, Fleisher, W, Enns, MW, Macmillan, H, Sareen, J (2011). Childhood adversity and personality disorders: results from a nationally representative population-based study. Journal of Psychiatric Research 45, 814822.
Ball, JS, Links, PS (2009). Borderline personality disorder and childhood trauma: evidence for a causal relationship. Current Psychiatry Reports 11, 6368.
Barahal, RM, Waterman, J, Martin, HP (1981). The social cognitive development of abused children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 49, 508516.
Bateman, A, Fonagy, P (2009). Randomized controlled trial of outpatient mentalization-based treatment versus structured clinical management for borderline personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 166, 13551364.
Berg, AO, Aas, M, Larsson, S, Nerhus, M, Hauff, E, Andreassen, OA, Melle, I (2014). Childhood trauma mediates the association between ethnic minority status and more severe hallucinations in psychotic disorder. Psychological Medicine (in press).
Berry, K, Barrowclough, C, Wearden, A (2009). Adult attachment, perceived earlier experiences of care giving and trauma in people with psychosis. Journal of Mental Health 18, 280287.
Bohus, M, Dyer, AS, Priebe, K, Krüger, A, Kleindienst, N, Schmahl, C, Niedtfeld, I, Steil, R (2013). Dialectical behaviour therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder after childhood sexual abuse in patients with and without borderline personality disorder: a randomised controlled trial. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 82, 221233.
Bonoldi, I, Simeone, E, Rocchetti, M, Codjoe, L, Rossi, G, Gambi, F, Balottin, U, Caverzasi, E, Politi, P, Fusar-Poli, P (2013). Prevalence of self-reported childhood abuse in psychosis: a meta-analysis of retrospective studies. Psychiatry Research 210, 815.
Braehler, C, Valiquette, L, Holowka, D, Malla, AK, Joober, R, Ciampi, A, Pawliuk, N, King, S (2013). Childhood trauma and dissociation in first-episode psychosis, chronic schizophrenia and community controls. Psychiatric Research 210, 3642.
Bücker, J, Kapczinski, F, Post, R, Ceresér, KM, Szobot, C, Yatham, LN, Kapczinski, NS, Kauer-Sant’Anna, M (2012). Cognitive impairment in school-aged children with early trauma. Comprehensive Psychiatry 53, 758764.
Bücker, J, Kozicky, J, Torres, IJ, Kauer-Sant’anna, M, Silveira, LE, Bond, DJ, Lam, RW, Yatham, LN (2013). The impact of childhood trauma on cognitive functioning in patients recently recovered from a first manic episode: data from the Systematic Treatment Optimization Program for Early Mania (STOP-EM). Journal of Affective Disorders 148, 424430.
Campbell, C, Barrett, S, Shannon, C, Hoy, K, Rushe, T, Cooper, S, Mulholland, C (2013). The relationship between childhood trauma and neuropsychological functioning in first episode psychosis. Psychosis 5, 4859.
Carter, V, Myers, MR (2007). Exploring the risks of substantiated physical neglect related to poverty and parental characteristics: a national sample. Children and Youth Services Review 29, 110121.
Chen, LP, Murad, MH, Paras, ML, Colbenson, KM, Sattler, AL, Goranson, EN, Elamin, MB, Seime, RJ, Shinozaki, G, Prokop, LJ, Zirakzadeh, A (2010). Sexual abuse and lifetime diagnosis of psychiatric disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 85, 618629.
Choi, KH, Davidson, C, Spaulding, WD (2011). Social cognition moderates the influence of child physical abuse on inpatient psychiatric rehabilitation. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 199, 465470.
Cicchetti, D, Rogosch, FA, Maughan, A, Toth, SL, Bruce, J (2003). False belief understanding in maltreated children. Development and Psychopathology 15, 10671091.
Classen, CC, Palesh, OG, Aggarwal, R (2005). Sexual revictimization: a review of the empirical literature. Trauma, Violence & Abuse 6, 103129.
Conus, P, Cotton, S, Schimmelmann, BG, Berk, M, Daglas, R, McGorry, PD, Lambert, M (2010). Pretreatment and outcome correlates of past sexual and physical trauma in 118 bipolar I disorder patients with a first episode of psychotic mania. Bipolar Disorders 12, 244252.
Cotter, J, Drake, RJ, Bucci, S, Firth, J, Edge, D, Yung, AR (2014). What drives poor functioning in the at-risk mental state? A systematic review. Schizophrenia Research 159, 267277.
Davidson, G, Shannon, C, Mulholland, C, Campbell, J (2009). A longitudinal study of the effects of childhood trauma on symptoms and functioning of people with severe mental health problems. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation 10, 5768.
Dickson, H, Laurens, KR, Cullen, AE, Hodgins, S (2012). Meta-analyses of cognitive and motor function in youth aged 16 years and younger who subsequently develop schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine 42, 743755.
Distel, MA, Middeldorp, CM, Trull, TJ, Derom, CA, Willemsen, G, Boomsma, DI (2011). Life events and borderline personality features: the influence of gene-environment interaction and gene-environment correlation. Psychological Medicine 41, 849860.
Dunayevich, E, Keck, PE Jr (2000). Prevalence and description of psychotic features in bipolar mania. Current Psychiatry Reports 2, 286290.
Etain, B, Aas, M, Andreassen, OA, Lorentzen, S, Dieset, I, Gard, S, Kahn, JP, Bellivier, F, Leboyer, M, Melle, I, Henry, C (2013). Childhood trauma is associated with severe clinical characteristics of bipolar disorders. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 74, 991998.
Ferraz, L, Portella, MJ, Vállez, M, Gutiérrez, F, Martín-Blanco, A, Martín-Santos, R, Subirà, S (2013). Hostility and childhood sexual abuse as predictors of suicidal behaviour in Borderline Personality Disorder. Psychiatry Research 210, 980985.
Fett, AK, Viechtbauer, W, Dominguez, MD, Penn, DL, van Os, J, Krabbendam, L (2011). The relationship between neurocognition and social cognition with functional outcomes in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 35, 573588.
Fowke, A, Ross, S, Ashcroft, K (2012). Childhood maltreatment and internalized shame in adults with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy 19, 450457.
Fusar-Poli, P, Borgwardt, S, Bechdolf, A, Addington, J, Riecher-Rössler, A, Schultze-Lutter, F, Keshavan, M, Wood, S, Ruhrmann, S, Seidman, LJ, Valmaggia, L, Cannon, T, Velthorst, E, De Haan, L, Cornblatt, B, Bonoldi, I, Birchwood, M, McGlashan, T, Carpenter, W, McGorry, P, Klosterkötter, J, McGuire, P, Yung, A (2013). The psychosis high-risk state: a comprehensive state-of-the-art review. JAMA Psychiatry 70, 107120.
Gil, A, Gama, CS, de Jesus, DR, Lobato, MI, Zimmer, M, Belmonte-de-Abreu, P (2009). The association of child abuse and neglect with adult disability in schizophrenia and the prominent role of physical neglect. Child Abuse & Neglect 33, 618624.
Gilbert, R, Widom, CS, Browne, K, Fergusson, D, Webb, E, Janson, S (2009). Burden and consequences of child maltreatment in high-income countries. Lancet 373, 6881.
Gumley, AI, Taylor, HE, Schwannauer, M, MacBeth, A (2014). A systematic review of attachment and psychosis: measurement, construct validity and outcomes. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 129, 257274.
Gunderson, JG, Daversa, MT, Grilo, CM, McGlashan, TH, Zanarini, MC, Shea, MT, Skodol, AE, Yen, S, Sanislow, CA, Bender, DS, Dyck, IR, Morey, LC, Stout, RL (2006). Predictors of 2-year outcome for patients with borderline personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 163, 822826.
Hammersley, P, Dias, A, Todd, G, Bowen-Jones, K, Reilly, B, Bentall, RP (2003). Childhood trauma and hallucinations in bipolar affective disorder: preliminary investigation. British Journal of Psychiatry 182, 543547.
Harned, MS, Rizvi, SL, Linehan, MM (2010). Impact of co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder on suicidal women with borderline personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 167, 12101217.
Horan, WP, Green, MF, DeGroot, M, Fiske, A, Hellemann, G, Kee, K, Kern, RS, Lee, J, Sergi, MJ, Subotnik, KL, Sugar, CA, Ventura, J, Nuechterlein, KH (2012). Social cognition in schizophrenia, Part 2: 12-month stability and prediction of functional outcome in first-episode patients. Schizophrenia Bulletin 38, 865872.
Hoy, K, Barrett, S, Shannon, C, Campbell, C, Watson, D, Rushe, T, Shevlin, M, Bai, F, Cooper, S, Mulholland, C (2012). Childhood trauma and hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in first-episode psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 38, 11621169.
Isohanni, M, Jones, PB, Moilanen, K, Rantakallio, P, Veijola, J, Oja, H, Koiranen, M, Jokelainen, J, Croudace, T, Järvelin, M (2001). Early developmental milestones in adult schizophrenia and other psychoses. A 31-year follow-up of the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort. Schizophrenia Research 52, 119.
Janssen, I, Krabbendam, L, Bak, M, Hanssen, M, Vollebergh, W, de Graaf, R, van Os, J (2004). Childhood abuse as a risk factor for psychotic experiences. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 109, 3845.
Jaudes, PK, Mackey-Bilaver, L (2008). Do chronic conditions increase young children’s risk of being maltreated? Child Abuse & Neglect 32, 671681.
Jones, P, Rodgers, B, Murray, R, Marmot, M (1994). Child development risk factors for adult schizophrenia in the British 1946 birth cohort. Lancet 344, 13981402.
Kaess, M, Resch, F, Parzer, P, von Ceumern-Lindenstjerna, IA, Henze, R, Brunner, R (2013). Temperamental patterns in female adolescents with borderline personality disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 201, 109115.
Kelleher, I, Harley, M, Lynch, F, Arseneault, L, Fitzpatrick, C, Cannon, M (2008). Associations between childhood trauma, bullying and psychotic symptoms among a school-based adolescent sample. British Journal of Psychiatry 193, 378382.
Kelleher, I, Keeley, H, Corcoran, P, Ramsay, H, Wasserman, C, Carli, V, Sarchiapone, M, Hoven, C, Wasserman, D, Cannon, M (2013). Childhood trauma and psychosis in a prospective cohort study: cause, effect, and directionality. American Journal of Psychiatry 170, 734741.
Kingdon, DG, Ashcroft, K, Bhandari, B, Gleeson, S, Warikoo, N, Symons, M, Taylor, L, Lucas, E, Mahendra, R, Ghosh, S, Mason, A, Badrakalimuthu, R, Hepworth, C, Read, J, Mehta, R (2010). Schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder: similarities and differences in the experience of auditory hallucinations, paranoia, and childhood trauma. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 198, 399403.
Koizumi, M, Takagishi, H (2014). The relationship between child maltreatment and emotion recognition. PLoS One 9, e86093.
Lardinois, M, Lataster, T, Mengelers, R, Van Os, J, Myin-Germeys, I (2011). Childhood trauma and increased stress sensitivity in psychosis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 123, 2835.
Larsson, S, Aas, M, Klungsøyr, O, Agartz, I, Mork, E, Steen, NE, Barrett, EA, Lagerberg, TV, Røssberg, JI, Melle, I, Andreassen, OA, Lorentzen, S (2013b). Patterns of childhood adverse events are associated with clinical characteristics of bipolar disorder. BMC Psychiatry 13, 97.
Larsson, S, Andreassen, OA, Aas, M, Røssberg, JI, Mork, E, Steen, NE, Barrett, EA, Lagerberg, TV, Peleikis, D, Agartz, I, Melle, I, Lorentzen, S (2013a). High prevalence of childhood trauma in patients with schizophrenia spectrum and affective disorder. Comprehensive Psychiatry 54, 123127.
Linehan, MM (1993). Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder. Guilford: New York.
Links, PS, Kolla, NJ, Guimond, T, McMain, S (2013). Prospective risk factors for suicide attempts in a treated sample of patients with borderline personality disorder. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 58, 99106.
Lu, W, Mueser, KT, Rosenberg, SD, Jankowski, MK (2008). Correlates of adverse childhood experiences among adults with severe mood disorders. Psychiatric Services 59, 10181026.
Lysaker, PH, Beattie, NL, Strasburger, AM, Davis, LW (2005). Reported history of child sexual abuse in schizophrenia: associations with heightened symptom levels and poorer participation over four months in vocational rehabilitation. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 193, 790795.
Lysaker, PH, Meyer, P, Evans, JD, Marks, KA (2001b). Neurocognitive and symptom correlates of self-reported childhood sexual abuse in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry 13, 8992.
Lysaker, PH, Meyer, PS, Evans, JD, Clements, CA, Marks, KA (2001a). Childhood sexual trauma and psychosocial functioning in adults with schizophrenia. Psychiatric Services 52, 14851488.
Lysaker, PH, Nees, MA, Lancaster, RS, Davis, LW (2004). Vocational function among persons with schizophrenia with and without history of childhood sexual trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress 17, 435438.
Lysaker, PH, Wright, DE, Clements, CA, Plascak-Hallberg, CD (2002). Neurocognitive and psychosocial correlates of hostility among persons in a post-acute phase of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Comprehensive Psychiatry 43, 319324.
MacBeth, A, Gumley, A, Schwannauer, M, Fisher, R (2011). Attachment states of mind, mentalization, and their correlates in a first-episode psychosis sample. Psychology and Psychotherapy 84, 4257.
Martinez-Aran, A, Vieta, E, Torrent, C, Sanchez-Moreno, J, Goikolea, JM, Salamero, M, Malhi, GS, Gonzalez-Pinto, A, Daban, C, Alvarez-Grandi, S, Fountoulakis, K, Kaprinis, G, Tabares-Seisdedos, R, Ayuso-Mateos, JL (2007). Functional outcome in bipolar disorder: the role of clinical and cognitive factors. Bipolar Disorders 9, 103113.
Mersky, JP, Berger, LM, Reynolds, AJ, Gromoske, AN (2009). Risk factors for child and adolescent maltreatment: a longitudinal investigation of a cohort of inner-city youth. Child Maltreatment 14, 7388.
Miller, TJ, McGlashan, TH, Rosen, JL, Somjee, L, Markovich, PJ, Stein, K, Woods, SW (2002). Prospective diagnosis of the initial prodrome for schizophrenia based on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes: preliminary evidence of interrater reliability and predictive validity. American Journal of Psychiatry 159, 863865.
Minzenberg, MJ, Poole, JH, Vinogradov, S (2006). Adult social attachment disturbance is related to childhood maltreatment and current symptoms in borderline personality disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 194, 341348.
Mondelli, V, Cattaneo, A, Belvederi Murri, M, Di Forti, M, Handley, R, Hepgul, N, Miorelli, A, Navari, S, Papadopoulos, AS, Aitchison, KJ, Morgan, C, Murray, RM, Dazzan, P, Pariante, CM (2011). Stress and inflammation reduce brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in first-episode psychosis: a pathway to smaller hippocampal volume. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 72, 16771684.
Morandotti, N, Dima, D, Jogia, J, Frangou, S, Sala, M, Vidovich, GZ, Lazzaretti, M, Gambini, F, Marraffini, E, d’Allio, G, Barale, F, Zappoli, F, Caverzasi, E, Brambilla, P (2013). Childhood abuse is associated with structural impairment in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and aggressiveness in patients with borderline personality disorder. Psychiatry Research 213, 1823.
Moretti, MM, Peled, M (2004). Adolescent-parent attachment: bonds that support healthy development. Paediatrics & Child Health 9, 551555.
Mueser, KT, Lu, W, Rosenberg, SD, Wolfe, R (2010). The trauma of psychosis: posttraumatic stress disorder and recent onset psychosis. Schizophrenia Research 116, 217227.
Murray, RM, Lewis, SW (1987). Is schizophrenia a neurodevelopmental disorder? British Medical Journal 295, 681682.
Nanni, V, Uher, R, Danese, A (2012). Childhood maltreatment predicts unfavorable course of illness and treatment outcome in depression: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry 169, 141151.
Neigh, GN, Gillespie, CF, Nemeroff, CB (2009). The neurobiological toll of child abuse and neglect. Trauma, Violence & Abuse 10, 389410.
Pears, KC, Fisher, PA (2005). Emotion understanding and theory of mind among maltreated children in foster care: evidence of deficits. Development and Psychopathology 17, 4765.
Pechtel, P, Pizzagalli, DA (2011). Effects of early life stress on cognitive and affective function: an integrated review of human literature. Psychopharmacology 214, 5570.
Pos, K, Bartels-Velthuis, AA, Simons, CJ, Korver-Nieberg, N, Meijer, CJ, de Haan, L, for GROUP (2014). Theory of mind and attachment styles in people with psychotic disorders, their siblings, and controls. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry (in press).
Read, J, Perry, BD, Moskowitz, A, Connolly, J (2001). The contribution of early traumatic events to schizophrenia in some patients: a traumagenic neurodevelopmental model. Psychiatry 64, 319345.
Regier, DA, Farmer, ME, Rae, DS, Locke, BZ, Keith, SJ, Judd, LL, Goodwin, FK (1990). Comorbidity of mental disorders with alcohol and other drug abuse. Results from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) Study. JAMA 264, 25112518.
Roepke, S, Vater, A, Preißler, S, Heekeren, HR, Dziobek, I (2013). Social cognition in borderline personality disorder. Frontiers in Neuroscience 6, 195.
Rosenberg, SD, Lu, W, Mueser, KT, Jankowski, MK, Cournos, F (2007). Correlates of adverse childhood events among adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Psychiatric Services 58, 245253.
Sar, V, Taycan, O, Bolat, N, Ozmen, M, Duran, A, Oztürk, E, Ertem-Vehid, H (2010). Childhood trauma and dissociation in schizophrenia. Psychopathology 43, 3340.
Schäfer, I, Fisher, HL, Aderhold, V, Huber, B, Hoffmann-Langer, L, Golks, D, Karow, A, Ross, C, Read, J, Harfst, T (2012). Dissociative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia: relationships with childhood trauma and psychotic symptoms. Comprehensive Psychiatry 53, 364371.
Schenkel, LS, Spaulding, WD, DiLillo, D, Silverstein, SM (2005). Histories of childhood maltreatment in schizophrenia: relationships with premorbid functioning, symptomatology, and cognitive deficits. Schizophrenia Research 76, 273286.
Schwandt, ML, Heilig, M, Hommer, DW, George, DT, Ramchandani, VA (2013). Childhood trauma exposure and alcohol dependence severity in adulthood: mediation by emotional abuse severity and neuroticism. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 37, 984992.
Shamsi, S, Lau, A, Lencz, T, Burdick, KE, DeRosse, P, Brenner, R, Lindenmayer, JP, Malhotra, AK (2011). Cognitive and symptomatic predictors of functional disability in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 126, 257264.
Shannon, C, Douse, K, McCusker, C, Feeney, L, Barrett, S, Mulholland, C (2011). The association between childhood trauma and memory functioning in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 37, 531537.
Sheffield, JM, Williams, LE, Woodward, ND, Heckers, S (2013). Reduced gray matter volume in psychotic disorder patients with a history of childhood sexual abuse. Schizophrenia Research 143, 185191.
Smith, DK, Johnson, AB, Pears, KC, Fisher, PA, DeGarmo, DS (2007). Child maltreatment and foster care: unpacking the effects of prenatal and postnatal parental substance use. Child Maltreatment 12, 150160.
Soloff, P, Nutche, J, Goradia, D, Diwadkar, V (2008). Structural brain abnormalities in borderline personality disorder: a voxel-based morphometry study. Psychiatry Research 164, 223236.
Spence, W, Mulholland, C, Lynch, G, McHugh, S, Dempster, M, Shannon, C (2006). Rates of childhood trauma in a sample of patients with schizophrenia as compared with a sample of patients with non-psychotic psychiatric diagnoses. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation 7, 722.
Spencer, D (2002). Paediatric trauma: when it is not an accident. Accident and Emergency Nursing 10, 143148.
Stain, HJ, Brønnick, K, Hegelstad, WT, Joa, I, Johannessen, JO, Langeveld, J, Mawn, L, Larsen, TK (2014). Impact of interpersonal trauma on the social functioning of adults with first-episode psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 40, 14911498.
Statucka, M, Walder, DJ (2013). Efficacy of social cognition remediation programs targeting facial affect recognition deficits in schizophrenia: a review and consideration of high-risk samples and sex differences. Psychiatry Research 206, 125139.
Tait, L, Birchwood, M, Trower, P (2004). Adapting to the challenge of psychosis: personal resilience and the use of sealing-over (avoidant) coping strategies. British Journal of Psychiatry 185, 410415.
Teicher, MH, Samson, JA (2013). Childhood maltreatment and psychopathology: a case for ecophenotypic variants as clinically and neurobiologically distinct subtypes. American Journal of Psychiatry 170, 11141133.
Thabrew, H, de Sylva, S, Romans, SE (2012). Evaluating childhood adversity. Advances in Psychosomatic Medicine 32, 3557.
Thompson, AD, Nelson, B, Yuen, HP, Lin, A, Amminger, GP, McGorry, PD, Wood, SJ, Yung, AR (2014). Sexual trauma increases the risk of developing psychosis in an ultra high-risk “prodromal” population. Schizophrenia Bulletin 40, 697706.
Trull, TJ, Sher, KJ, Minks-Brown, C, Durbin, J, Burr, R (2000). Borderline personality disorder and substance use disorders: a review and integration. Clinical Psychology Review 20, 235253.
Tyrka, AR, Burgers, DE, Philip, NS, Price, LH, Carpenter, LL (2013). The neurobiological correlates of childhood adversity and implications for treatment. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 128, 434447.
Van Dam, NT, Rando, K, Potenza, MN, Tuit, K, Sinha, R (2014). Childhood maltreatment, altered limbic neurobiology, and substance use relapse severity via trauma-specific reductions in limbic gray matter volume. JAMA Psychiatry 71, 917925.
Varese, F, Smeets, F, Drukker, M, Lieverse, R, Lataster, T, Viechtbauer, W, Read, J, van Os, J, Bentall, RP (2012). Childhood adversities increase the risk of psychosis: a meta-analysis of patient-control, prospective- and cross-sectional cohort studies. Schizophrenia Bulletin 38, 661671.
Weinberger, DR (1987). Implications of normal brain development for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 44, 660669.
Widom, CS, DuMont, K, Czaja, SJ (2007). A prospective investigation of major depressive disorder and comorbidity in abused and neglected children grown up. Archives of General Psychiatry 64, 4956.
Wykes, T, Huddy, V, Cellard, C, McGurk, SR, Czobor, P (2011). A meta-analysis of cognitive remediation for schizophrenia: methodology and effect sizes. American Journal of Psychiatry 168, 472485.
Yung, AR, McGorry, PD, McFarlane, CA, Jackson, HJ, Patton, GC, Rakkar, A (1996). Monitoring and care of young people at incipient risk of psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 22, 283303.
Yung, AR, Phillips, LJ, McGorry, PD, McFarlane, CA, Francey, S, Harrigan, S, Patton, GC, Jackson, HJ (1998). Prediction of psychosis. A step towards indicated prevention of schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 172, 1420.
Yung, AR, Yuen, HP, McGorry, PD, Phillips, LJ, Kelly, D, Dell'Olio, M, Francey, SM, Cosgrave, EM, Killackey, E, Stanford, C, Godfrey, K, Buckby, J (2005). Mapping the onset of psychosis: the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 39, 964971.
Zanarini, MC, Frankenburg, FR, Reich, DB, Hennen, J, Silk, KR (2005). Adult experiences of abuse reported by borderline patients and Axis II comparison subjects over six years of prospective follow-up. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 193, 412416.
Zanarini, MC, Yong, L, Frankenburg, FR, Hennen, J, Reich, DB, Marino, MF, Vujanovic, AA (2002). Severity of reported childhood sexual abuse and its relationship to severity of borderline psychopathology and psychosocial impairment among borderline inpatients. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 190, 381387.
Zielinski, DS (2009). Child maltreatment and adult socioeconomic well-being. Child Abuse & Neglect 33, 666678.
Zlotnick, C, Johnson, DM, Yen, S, Battle, CL, Sanislow, CA, Skodol, AE, Grilo, CM, McGlashan, TH, Gunderson, JG, Bender, DS, Zanarini, MC, Shea, MT (2003). Clinical features and impairment in women with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), BPD without PTSD, and other personality disorders with PTSD. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 191, 706713.


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Childhood trauma and functional disability in psychosis, bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder: a review of the literature

  • J. Cotter (a1), M. Kaess (a2) and A. R. Yung (a1) (a3)


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.