Published online by Cambridge University Press: 27 June 2013
This article looks at business activities in violent and fragile environments through an armed violence lens and explores the role of business in armed violence reduction and prevention (AVRP) strategies. The article argues that the transformation of armed violence patterns over the last decade requires a new optic on a subject that has traditionally been discussed in the context of ‘business and peace’ or ‘business and conflict’, and of armed violence related to inter- or intra-state armed conflict. The article sets out to better understand how different constituencies have dealt with the role of the private sector in reducing armed violence, and to connect the dots between various scholarly and practice communities to identify entry points for AVRP strategies across sectors and institutions. The article suggests that such entry points exist in relation to the costing of armed violence and civic observatories.
2 UN Doc. A/HRC/17/31, Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights: Implementing the United Nations ‘Protect, Respect and Remedy’ Framework, 21 March 2011, unanimously endorsed by the United Nations Human Rights Council on 16 June 2011.
3 Available at: http://www.voluntaryprinciples.org/files/voluntary_principles_english.pdf (last visited 14 December 2012).
4 ‘Violent and fragile contexts’ are understood to exist where ‘political, social, security and economic risks correlate with organised violence’. These occur particularly in ‘periods when states or institutions lack the capacity, accountability, or legitimacy to mediate relations between citizen groups and between citizens and the state, making them vulnerable to violence’. See World Bank, World Development Report 2011: Conflict Security and Development, World Bank, Washington, D.C., 2011, pp. xv–xviGoogle Scholar.
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26 FDI and remittance flows are very different in nature, with the former having a significant concentration in the extractive and infrastructure sectors, and the latter capturing money sent by workers or the diaspora directly to family members in the home country. Remittances can increase the resilience of households and can also represent investments in micro or small family enterprises.
27 Figures for armed violence based on data from the Geneva Declaration Secretariat. The table includes the nineteen most violent countries measured by the violent death rate per 100,000 population. GDS, above note 1, p. 53. Figures for FDI and remittances are based on World Bank Data (http://data.worldbank.org) for the annual averages in the period 2004–2009 for the indicators ‘Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)’ and ‘Workers’ remittances and compensation of employees, received (current US$)’.
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