Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Validation of the Chinese version of the memory binding test for distinguishing amnestic mild cognitive impairment from cognitively normal elderly individuals

  • Xiao Wang (a1) (a2) (a3) (a4), Tao Li (a1) (a2) (a3), Haifeng Zhang (a1) (a2) (a3), Tingting Sun (a1) (a2) (a3), Lingchuan Xiong (a1) (a2), Yunqiu Zhang (a5), Zhiyu Sun (a1) (a6), Xin Yu (a1) (a2) (a3) and Huali Wang (a1) (a2) (a3)...

Abstract

Background:

Episodic memory starts to decline very early in the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Subtle impairments in memory binding may be detected in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This study aims to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the memory binding test (MBT).

Methods:

One hundred and sixty-four subjects (26 individuals with AD, 67 individuals with amnestic MCI (aMCI), 30 individuals with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), and 41 cognitively normal elderly individuals (NC)) participated in the study. Twenty-two subjects repeated the assessment of the MBT within 6 weeks (± 2 weeks). Pearson correlation was used to calculate the convergent validity. The test––retest reliability was determined by the calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Discriminative validity was calculated to evaluate the receiver–operating characteristic curves. The optimal index was chosen by comparing the area under the curve for specificity and sensitivity ≥ 0.80. The optimal cutoff score of the index was chosen to maximize the sum of sensitivity and specificity.

Results:

The absolute value of the convergent validity of the direct indexes of MBT ranged from 0.443 to 0.684. The ICC for each of direct indexes was 0.887–0.958. Total delayed paired recall (TDPR) was the optimal index for discriminating aMCI from NC. The cutoff score for TDPR was ≤25 to distinguish aMCI from NC (sensitivity = 0.896, specificity = 0.707).

Conclusion:

The Chinese version of MBT is a valid and reliable instrument to detect MCI.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence should be addressed to: Huali Wang, Peking University Institute of Mental Health, No. 51 Huayuanbei Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191, China. Phone: +86-10-82801983. Email: huali_wang@bjmu.edu.cn.

Footnotes

Hide All

Both the authors contributed equally to this work.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Ally, B. A., Hussey, E. P., Ko, P. C. and Molitor, R. J. (2013). Pattern separation and pattern completion in Alzheimer’s disease: Evidence of rapid forgetting in amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Hippocampus, 23, 12461258. doi: 10.1002/hipo.22162.
Baddeley, A., Allen, R. and Vargha-Khadem, F. (2010). Is the hippocampus necessary for visual and verbal binding in working memory? Neuropsychologia, 48, 10891095. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2009.12.009.
Bateman, R. J., et al. (2012). Clinical and biomarker changes in dominantly inherited Alzheimer’s disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 367, 795804. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1202753.
Braak, H. and Braak, E. (1991). Neuropathological staging of Alzheimer-related changes. Acta Neuropathologica, 82, 239259. doi: 10.1007/bf00308809.
Braak, H. and Braak, E. (1997). Staging of Alzheimer-related cortical destruction. International Psychogeriatrics, 9(Suppl. 1), 257261; discussion 269–272. doi: 10.1017/S1041610297004973.
Burke, W. J., et al. (1988). Reliability of the Washington University Clinical Dementia Rating. Archives of Neurology, 45, 3132. doi: 10.1001/archneur.1988.00520250037015.
Buschke, H., et al. (2017). Memory binding test distinguishes amnestic mild cognitive impairment and dementia from cognitively normal elderly. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 32, 2939. doi: 10.1093/arclin/acw083.
Buschke, H., Sliwinski, M. J., Kuslansky, G. and Lipton, R. B. (1997). Diagnosis of early dementia by the Double Memory Test: Encoding specificity improves diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Neurology, 48, 989997. doi: 10.1212/wnl.48.4.989.
Dubois, B., et al. (2010). Revising the definition of Alzheimer’s disease: A new lexicon. The Lancet Neurology, 9, 11181127. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(10)70223-4.
Dubois, B., et al. (2007). Research criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: Revising the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. The Lancet Neurology, 6, 734746. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(07)70178-3.
Ebert, P. L. and Anderson, N. D. (2009). Proactive and retroactive interference in young adults, healthy older adults, and older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 15, 8393. doi: 10.1017/S1355617708090115.
Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E. and McHugh, P. R. (1975). “Mini-mental state”. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189198. doi: 10.1016/0022-3956(75)90026-6.
Gillis, M. M., Quinn, K. M., Phillips, P. A. and Hampstead, B. M. (2013). Impaired retention is responsible for temporal order memory deficits in mild cognitive impairment. Acta Psychologica, 143, 8895. doi: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2013.03.001.
Gold, C. A. and Budson, A. E. (2008). Memory loss in Alzheimer’s disease: Implications for development of therapeutics. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 8, 18791891. doi: 10.1586/14737175.8.12.1879.
Gramunt, N., et al. (2015). Reference data of the Spanish memory binding test in a midlife population from the ALFA STUDY (Alzheimer’s and Family). Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 48, 613625. doi: 10.3233/JAD-150237.
Hampel, H. and Lista, S. (2016). Dementia: The rising global tide of cognitive impairment. Nature Reviews Neurology, 12, 131132. doi: 10.1038/nrneurol.2015.250.
Hanseeuw, B. J., Seron, X. and Ivanoiu, A. (2010). Increased sensitivity to proactive interference in amnestic mild cognitive impairment is independent of associative and semantic impairment. Brain and Cognition, 72, 325331. doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2009.10.004.
Hughes, C. P., Berg, L., Danziger, W. L., Coben, L. A. and Martin, R. L. (1982). A new clinical scale for the staging of dementia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 566572. doi: 10.1192/bjp.140.6.566.
Jack, C. R. Jr., et al. (2013). Tracking pathophysiological processes in Alzheimer’s disease: An updated hypothetical model of dynamic biomarkers. The Lancet Neurology, 12, 207216. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(12)70291-0.
Jessen, F., et al. (2014). A conceptual framework for research on subjective cognitive decline in preclinical Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 10, 844852. doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2014.01.001.
Konkel, A., Warren, D. E., Duff, M. C., Tranel, D. N. and Cohen, N. J. (2008). Hippocampal amnesia impairs all manner of relational memory. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 2, 15. doi: 10.3389/neuro.09.015.2008.
Koppara, A., et al. (2015). Feature binding deficits in subjective cognitive decline and in mild cognitive impairment. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 48(Suppl. 1), S161170. doi: 10.3233/JAD-150105.
Li, G., et al. (1988). The study of simple and easy screening Dementia—testing of MMSE in population of urban elderly (Chinese). Chinese Mental Health Journal, 2(1), 1318.
Liang, Y., et al. (2016). Visual short-term memory binding deficit in familial Alzheimer’s disease. Cortex, 78, 150164. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2016.01.015.
Loewenstein, D. A., Acevedo, A., Agron, J. and Duara, R. (2007a). Stability of neurocognitive impairment in different subtypes of mild cognitive impairment. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 23, 8286. doi: 10.1159/000097304.
Loewenstein, D. A., Acevedo, A., Agron, J. and Duara, R. (2007b). Vulnerability to proactive semantic interference and progression to dementia among older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 24, 363368. doi: 10.1159/000109151.
Loewenstein, D. A., Acevedo, A., Luis, C., Crum, T., Barker, W. W. and Duara, R. (2004). Semantic interference deficits and the detection of mild Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment without dementia. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 10, 91100. doi: 10.1017/S1355617704101112.
Loewenstein, D. A., Curiel, R. E., Duara, R. and Buschke, H. (2018). novel cognitive paradigms for the detection of memory impairment in preclinical Alzheimer’s disease. Assessment, 25, 348359. doi: 10.1177/1073191117691608.
Loewenstein, D. A., et al. (2016). A novel cognitive stress test for the detection of preclinical Alzheimer disease: Discriminative properties and relation to Amyloid load. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 24, 804813. doi: 10.1016/j.jagp.2016.02.056.
Logroscino, G., et al. (2018). Global, regional, and national burden of motor neuron diseases 1990-2016: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. The Lancet Neurology, 17, 10831097. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(18)30404-6.
Mayes, A., Montaldi, D. and Migo, E. (2007). Associative memory and the medial temporal lobes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11, 126135. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2006.12.003.
McKhann, G., Drachman, D., Folstein, M., Katzman, R., Price, D. and Stadlan, E. M. (1984). Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: Report of the NINCDS-ADRDA Work Group under the auspices of Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer’s Disease. Neurology, 34, 939944. doi: 10.1212/wnl.34.7.939.
Meiser, T., Sattler, C. and Weisser, K. (2008). Binding of multidimensional context information as a distinctive characteristic of remember judgments. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34, 3249. doi: 10.1037/0278-7393.34.1.32.
Migo, E. M., et al. (2015). Alterations in working memory networks in amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 22, 106127. doi: 10.1080/13825585.2014.894958.
Morris, J. C. (1997). Clinical dementia rating: A reliable and valid diagnostic and staging measure for dementia of the Alzheimer type. International Psychogeriatrics, 9(Suppl. 1), 173176; discussion 177-178. doi: 10.1017/S1041610297004870.
Moses, S. N. and Ryan, J. D. (2006). A comparison and evaluation of the predictions of relational and conjunctive accounts of hippocampal function. Hippocampus, 16, 4365. doi: 10.1002/hipo.20131.
Mowrey, W. B., et al. (2016). Memory binding test predicts incident amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 53, 15851595. doi: 10.3233/JAD-160291.
Nasreddine, Z. S., et al. (2005). The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA: A brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 53, 695699. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2005.53221.x.
Ozer, S., Young, J., Champ, C. and Burke, M. (2016). A systematic review of the diagnostic test accuracy of brief cognitive tests to detect amnestic mild cognitive impairment. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 31, 11391150. doi: 10.1002/gps.4444.
Papp, K. V., et al. (2015). Free and cued memory in relation to biomarker-defined abnormalities in clinically normal older adults and those at risk for Alzheimer’s disease. Neuropsychologia, 73, 169175. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2015.04.034.
Parra, M. A., Fabi, K., Luzzi, S., Cubelli, R., Hernandez Valdez, M. and Della Sala, S. (2015). Relational and conjunctive binding functions dissociate in short-term memory. Neurocase, 21, 5666. doi: 10.1080/13554794.2013.860177.
Pertzov, Y., et al. (2013). Binding deficits in memory following medial temporal lobe damage in patients with voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibody-associated limbic encephalitis. Brain, 136, 24742485. doi: 10.1093/brain/awt129.
Petersen, R. C. (2004). Mild cognitive impairment as a diagnostic entity. Journal of Internal Medicine, 256, 183194. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2004.01388.x.
Petersen, R. C., et al. (2001). Current concepts in mild cognitive impairment. JAMA Neurology, 58, 19851992. doi: 10.1001/archneur.58.12.1985.
Rentz, D. M., et al. (2011). Face-name associative memory performance is related to amyloid burden in normal elderly. Neuropsychologia, 49, 27762783. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2011.06.006.
Rentz, D. M., et al. (2010). Cognition, reserve, and amyloid deposition in normal aging. Annals of Neurology, 67, 353364. doi: 10.1002/ana.21904.
Rentz, D. M., Parra Rodriguez, M. A., Amariglio, R., Stern, Y., Sperling, R. and Ferris, S. (2013). Promising developments in neuropsychological approaches for the detection of preclinical Alzheimer’s disease: A selective review. Alzheimer’s Research & Therapy, 5, 58. doi: 10.1186/alzrt222.
Roman, F., Iturry, M., Rojas, G., Barcelo, E., Buschke, H. and Allegri, R. F. (2016). Validation of the Argentine version of the Memory Binding Test (MBT) for Early Detection of Mild Cognitive Impairment. Dementia e Neuropsychologia, 10, 217226. doi: 10.1590/S1980-5764-2016DN1003008.
Royall, D. R., Palmer, R., Chiodo, L. K. and Polk, M. J. (2005). Normal rates of cognitive change in successful aging: the freedom house study. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 11, 899909. doi: 10.1017/S135561770505109X.
Salmon, D. P. and Bondi, M. W. (2009). Neuropsychological assessment of dementia. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 257282. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.57.102904.190024.
Snowden, J. S., et al. (2007). Cognitive phenotypes in Alzheimer’s disease and genetic risk. Cortex, 43, 835845. doi: 10.1016/s0010-9452(08)70683-x.
Sperduti, M., Armougum, A., Makowski, D., Blonde, P. and Piolino, P. (2017). Interaction between attentional systems and episodic memory encoding: The impact of conflict on binding of information. Experimental Brain Research, 235, 35533560. doi: 10.1007/s00221-017-5081-6.
Staresina, B. P. and Davachi, L. (2008). Selective and shared contributions of the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex to episodic item and associative encoding. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20, 14781489. doi: 10.1162/jocn.2008.20104.
Stopford, C. L., Thompson, J. C., Neary, D., Richardson, A. M. and Snowden, J. S. (2012). Working memory, attention, and executive function in Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal dementia. Cortex, 48, 429446. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2010.12.002.
Tsoi, K. K. F., et al. (2017). Recall tests are effective to detect mild cognitive impairment: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 108 diagnostic studies. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 18, 807.e17807.e29. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2017.05.016.
Tulving, E. (2002). Episodic memory: From mind to brain. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 125. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135114.
Villemagne, V. L., et al. (2013). Amyloid beta deposition, neurodegeneration, and cognitive decline in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease: a prospective cohort study. The Lancet Neurology, 12, 357367. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(13)70044-9.
Wadley, V. G., Okonkwo, O., Crowe, M., Ross-Meadows, L. A. (2008). Mild cognitive impairment and everyday function: Evidence of reduced speed in performing instrumental activities of daily living. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 16, 416424. doi: 10.1097/JGP.0b013e31816b7303.
World Health Organization (1999). International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10). Geneva: World Health Organization.
Zhao, M., et al. (2016). Delayed help seeking behavior in dementia care: Preliminary findings from the Clinical Pathway for Alzheimer’s Disease in China (CPAD) study. International Psychogeriatrics, 28, 211219. doi: 10.1017/S1041610215000940.

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Wang et al. supplementary material
Wang et al. supplementary material

 Word (331 KB)
331 KB

Validation of the Chinese version of the memory binding test for distinguishing amnestic mild cognitive impairment from cognitively normal elderly individuals

  • Xiao Wang (a1) (a2) (a3) (a4), Tao Li (a1) (a2) (a3), Haifeng Zhang (a1) (a2) (a3), Tingting Sun (a1) (a2) (a3), Lingchuan Xiong (a1) (a2), Yunqiu Zhang (a5), Zhiyu Sun (a1) (a6), Xin Yu (a1) (a2) (a3) and Huali Wang (a1) (a2) (a3)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed