Skip to main content Accessibility help

Validation of the Brazilian Portuguese Version of Geriatric Anxiety Inventory – GAI-BR

  • Patrícia Nitschke Massena (a1), Narahyana Bom de Araújo (a2), Nancy Pachana (a3), Jerson Laks (a2) and Analuiza Camozzato de Pádua (a1)...



The Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) is a recently developed scale aiming to evaluate symptoms of anxiety in later life. This 20-item scale uses dichotomous answers highlighting non-somatic anxiety complaints of elderly people. The present study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian Portuguese version GAI (GAI-BR) in a sample from community and outpatient psychogeriatric clinic.


A mixed convenience sample of 72 subjects was recruited for answering the research protocol. The interview procedures were structured with questionnaires about sociodemographic data, clinical health status, anxiety, and depression previously validated instruments, Mini-Mental State Examination, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and GAI-BR. Twenty-two percent of the sample were interviewed twice for test–retest reliability. For internal consistency analyses, the Cronbach's α test was applied. The Spearman correlation test was applied to evaluate the test–retest GAI-BR reliability. A ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve study was made to estimate the GAI-BR area under curve, cut-off points, sensitivity, and specificity for the Generalized Anxiety Disorder diagnosis.


The GAI-BR version showed high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.91) and strong and significant test–retest reliability (ρ = 0.85, p < 0.001). It also showed moderate and significant correlation with the Beck Anxiety Inventory (ρ = 0.68, p < 0.001) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (ρ = 0.61, p < 0.001) showing evidence of concurrent validation. The cut-off point of 13 estimated by ROC curve analyses showed sensitivity of 83.3% and specificity of 84.6% to detect Generalized Anxiety Disorder (DSM-IV).


GAI-BR has demonstrated very good psychometric properties and can be a reliable instrument to measure anxiety in Brazilian elderly people.


Corresponding author

Correspondence should be addressed to: Patrícia Nitschke Massena, Psychiatrist, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Phone: +55-51-92380115. Email:


Hide All
Almeida, O. P. and Almeida, S. A. (1999). Confiabilidade da Versão Brasileira da Escala de Depressão em Geriatria (GDS): versão reduzida. Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria, 57, 421427.
Amorim, P. (2000). Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI): Validação de entrevista breve para diagnóstico de transtornos mentais. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 22, 106111.
Beck, A. T., Epstein, N., Brown, G. and Steer, R. A. (1988). An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: psychometric properties. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 893900.
Bertolucci, P. H., Brucki, S. M., Campacci, S. R. and Juliano, Y. (1994). The Mini-Mental State Examination in a general population: impact of educational status. Arquivos de Neuropsiquiatria, 52, 17.
Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. (2010). Brasília, Brazil. Available at:; last accessed 24 March 2014.
Brazilian Association of Research Companies Socioeconomic Survey. (2010). Brasília, Brazil. Available at:; last accessed 24 March 2014.
Bryant, C., Jackson, H. and Ames, D. (2009). Depression and anxiety in medically unwell older adults: prevalence and short-term course. International Psychogeriatrics, 21, 754763.
Byers, A. L., Yaffe, K., Covisnky, K. E., Friedman, M. B. and Bruce, M. L. (2010). High occurrence of mood and anxiety disorders among older adults. The National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67, 489496.
Byrne, G. J., Pachana, N. A., Goncalves, D. C., Arnold, E., King, R. and Khoo, S. K. (2010). Psychometric properties and health correlates of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory in Australian community-residing older women. Aging and Mental Health, 14, 247254.
Camozzato, A., Hidalgo, M. P., Souza, S. and Chaves, M. L. (2007). Association among items from the self-report version of the Hamilton Depression Scale (Carroll Rating Scale) and respondents’ sex. Psychological Reports, 101, 291301.
Cunha, J. A. (2001). Manual da versão em português das Escalas Beck. São Paulo: Casa do Psicólogo.
Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E. and McHugh, P. R. (1975). Mini-mental state. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189198.
Gloster, A. T. et al. (2008). Psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 in older primary care patients. Journal of Affective Disorders, 110, 248259.
Gorenstein, C. and Andrade, L. (1996). Validation of a Portuguese version of the Beck Depression Inventory and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory in Brazilian subjects. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 29, 453460.
Kumar, R. and Indrayan, A. (2011). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve for medical researchers. Indian Pediatrics, 4, 277287.
Lowe, P. A. and Reynolds, C. R. (2006). Exploratory analyses of the latent structure of anxiety among older adults. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 60, 100116.
Márquez-González, M., Losada, A., Fernández-Fernández, V. and Pachana, N. A. (2012). Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory. International Psychogeriatrics, 24, 137144. DOI: 10.1017/S1041610211001505.
Martiny, C., Silva, A. C. O., Nardi, A. E. and Pachana, N. A. (2011). Tradução e adaptação transcultural da versão brasileira do Inventário de Ansiedade Geriátrica (GAI). Revista de Psiquiatria Clínica, 38, 812.
Meyer, T., Miller, M., Metzger, R. and Borkovec, T. D. (1990). Development and validation of the Penn State Worry Scale. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 28, 487495.
Morin, C. M., Landreville, P., Colecchi, C., McDonald, K., Stone, J. and Ling, W. (1999). The Beck Anxiety Inventory: psychometric properties with older adults. Journal of Clinical Geropsychology, 5, 1929.
Pachana, N. A., Byrne, G. J., Siddle, H., Koloski, N., Harley, E. and Arnold, E. (2007). Development and validation of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory. International Psychogeriatrics, 19, 103114. DOI: 10.1017/S1041610206003504.
Pachana, N. A. and Byrne, G. J. (2012). The Geriatric Anxiety Inventory: international use and future directions. Australian Psychologist, 47, 3338.
Ribeiro, O., Paúl, C., Simões, M. R. and Firmino, H. (2011). Portuguese version of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory: transcultural adaptation and psychometric validation. Aging and Mental Health, 15, 742750.
Segal, D. I., June, A., Payne, M., Coolidge, F. L. and Yochim, B. (2010). Development and initial validation of a self-report assessment tool for anxiety among older adults: the Geriatric Anxiety Scale. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24, 709714. DOI: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.05.002.
Sheehan, D. V. et al. (1998). The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): the development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 59, 2233.
Sinoff, G., Ore, L., Zlotogorsky, D. and Tamir, A. (1999). Short Anxiety Screening Test – a brief instrument for detecting anxiety in the elderly. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 14, 10621071.
Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. and Lushene, R. E. (1970). Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Wolitzky-Taylor, K. B., Castriotta, N., Lenze, E. J., Stanley, M. A. and Craske, M. G. (2010). Anxiety disorders in older adults: a comprehensive review. Depression and Anxiety, 27, 190211.
Yesavage, J. A. et al. (1983). Development and validation of a Geriatric Depression Screening Scale: a preliminary report. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 17, 3749.


Validation of the Brazilian Portuguese Version of Geriatric Anxiety Inventory – GAI-BR

  • Patrícia Nitschke Massena (a1), Narahyana Bom de Araújo (a2), Nancy Pachana (a3), Jerson Laks (a2) and Analuiza Camozzato de Pádua (a1)...


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed