Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Successful aging in Spanish older adults: the role of psychosocial resources

  • Cristina G. Dumitrache (a1), Laura Rubio (a1) and Eulogio Cordón-Pozo (a2)

Abstract

Background:

Psychological and social resources such as extraversion, optimism, social support, or social networks contribute to adaptation and to successful aging. Building on assumptions derived from successful aging and from the developmental adaptation models, this study aims to analyze the joint impact of different psychosocial resources, such as personality, social relations, health, and socio-demographic characteristics on life satisfaction in a group of people aged 65 years-old and older from Spain.

Method:

A cross-sectional survey using non-proportional quota sampling was carried out. The sample comprised 406 community-dwelling older adults (M = 74.88, SD = 6.75). In order to collect the data, face-to-face interviews were individually conducted. A structural equation model (SEM) was carried out using the PLS software.

Results:

The results of the SEM model showed that, within this sample, psychosocial variables explain 47.4% of the variance in life satisfaction. Social relations and personality, specifically optimism, were strongly related with life satisfaction, while health status and socio-demographic characteristics were modestly associated with life satisfaction.

Conclusions:

Findings support the view that psychosocial resources are important for successful aging and therefore should be included in successful aging models. Furthermore, interventions aimed at fostering successful aging should take into account the role of psychosocial variables.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Successful aging in Spanish older adults: the role of psychosocial resources
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Successful aging in Spanish older adults: the role of psychosocial resources
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Successful aging in Spanish older adults: the role of psychosocial resources
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence should be addressed to: Cristina G. Dumitrache, Department of Developmental and Educational Psychology, University of Granada, Campus de Cartuja S/N, 18071, Granada, Spain. Phone: 0034 958 24 19 58. Email: cgdumitrache@ugr.es.

References

Hide All
Baldwin, D. R., Jackson, D., Okoh, I. and Cannon, R. L. (2011). Resiliency and optimism: an African American senior citizen's perspective. The Journal of Black Psychology, 37, 2441.10.1177/0095798410364394
Berg, A. I., Hoffman, L., Hassing, L. B., McClearn, G. E. and Johansson, B. (2009). What matters, and what matters most, for change in life satisfaction in the oldest-old? A study over 6 years among individuals 80+. Aging & Mental Health, 13, 191201. doi:10.1080/13607860802342227
Bishop, A., Martin, P. and Poon, L. (2006). Happiness and congruence in older adulthood: a structural model of life satisfaction. Aging & Mental Health, 10, 445453. doi:10.1080/13607860600638388
Blazer, D. G. (2006). Successful aging. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 14, 25. doi: 10.1097/01.JGP.0000195222.93655.d1
Borg, C., Hallberg, I. R. and Blomqvist, K. (2006). Life satisfaction among older people (65+) with reduced self-care capacity: the relationship to social, health and financial aspects. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 15, 607618.10.1111/j.1365-2702.2006.01375.x
Bowling, A. and Dieppe, P. (2005). What is successful ageing and who should define it? British Medical Journal, 331, 15481551. doi:10.1136/bmj.331.7531.1548
Cacioppo, J. T., Hawley, L. C., Kalil, A., Hughes, M. E., Waite, L. and Thisted, R. A. (2008). Happiness and the invisible threads of social connection. The Chicago health, aging, and social relations study. In Eid, M. and Larsen, R. J. (eds.), The Science of Subjective Well-Being (pp. 195219). New York: Guilford Press.
Caprara, M. (2008). Active aging promotion [La promoción del envejecimiento activo]. In Ballesteros, R. Fernández (ed.), Psychology of Old Age: An Applied Psychogeriatrics [Psicología de la Vejez: Una Psicogerontología Aplicada] (pp. 337361). Madrid: Pirámide.
Chan, Y. and Lee, R. P. (2006). Network size, social support and happiness in later life: a comparative study of Beijing and Hong Kong. Journal of Happiness Studies, 7, 87112.10.1007/s10902-005-1915-1
Chin, W. W. (1998). The partial least squares to structural equation modeling. In Marcoulides, G. A. (ed.), Modern Methods for Business Research (pp. 295336). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates Publisher.
Cho, J., Martin, P. and Poon, L. W. (2015). Successful aging and subjective well-being among oldest-old adults. The Gerontologist, 55, 132143.10.1093/geront/gnu074
Cosco, T. D., Prina, A. M., Perales, J., Stephan, B. and Brayne, C. (2014). Operational definitions of successful aging: a systematic review. International Psychogeriatrics, 26, 373381. doi:10.1017/S1041610213002287
Costa, P. T. and McCrae, R. R. (1999). Inventario de Personalidad NEO Revisado (NEO PI-R) e Inventario NEO Reducido de Cinco Factores (NEO-FFI) [NEO PI-R, Revised NEO Personality Inventory and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI)]. Madrid: TEA Editions.
Dai, B., Zhang, B. and Li, J. (2013). Protective factors for subjective well-being in Chinese older adults: the roles of resources and activity. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14, 12251239. doi:10.1007/s10902-012-9378-7
Davison, A. C. and Hinkley, D. V. (1997). Bootstrap Methods and their Application. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9780511802843
Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J. and Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 7175. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa4901_13
Enkvist, A. A., Ekström, H. H. and Elmståhl, S. S. (2012). What factors affect life satisfaction (LS) among the oldest-old? Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 54, 140145.10.1016/j.archger.2011.03.013
Fornell, C. and Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 3950. doi:10.2307/3151312
Gouda, K. and Okamoto, R. (2012). Current status of and factors associated with social isolation in the elderly living in a rapidly aging housing estate community. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, 17, 500511. doi: 10.1007/s12199-012-0282-x
Gwozdz, W. and Sousa-Poza, A. (2010). Ageing, health and life satisfaction of the oldest old: an analysis for Germany. Social Indicators Research, 97, 397417. doi:10.1007/s11205-009-9508-8
Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M. and Sarstedt, M. (2017). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Heo, J. and Lee, Y. (2010). Serious leisure, health perception, dispositional optimism, and life satisfaction among senior games participants. Educational Gerontology, 36, 112126. doi: 10.1080/03601270903058523
Herero, V. G. and Extremera, N. (2010). Daily life activities as mediators of the relationship between personality variables and subjective well-being among older adults. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 124129. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2010.03.019
Hofer, J., Busch, H. and Kiessling, F. (2008). Individual pathways to life satisfaction: the significance of traits and motives. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9, 503520. doi:10.1007/s10902-007-9086-x
Hsu, H. (2012). Trajectories and covariates of life satisfaction among older adults in Taiwan. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 55, 210216. doi:10.1016/j.archger.2011.08.011
Hsu, H. and Tung, H. (2010). What makes you good and happy? effects of internal and external resources to adaptation and psychological well-being for the disabled elderly in Taiwan. Aging & Mental Health, 14, 851860. doi:10.1080/13607861003800997
Huxhold, O., Fiori, K. L. and Windsor, T. D. (2013). The dynamic interplay of social network characteristics, subjective well-being, and health: the costs and benefits of socio-emotional selectivity. Psychology and Aging, 28, 316. doi:10.1037/a0030170
IMSERSO (2009). Informe 2008. Las Personas Mayores en España [Report 2008.Older People in Spain]. Madrid: Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales.
Jopp, D. S., Wozniak, D., Damarin, A. K., De Feo, M., Jung, S. and Jeswani, S. (2015). How could lay perspectives on successful aging complement scientific theory? Findings from a U.S. and a German life-span sample. The Gerontologist, 55, 91106. doi:10.1093/geront/gnu059
Ju, H., Shin, J. W., Kim, C., Hyun, M. and Park, J. (2013). Mediational effect of meaning in life on the relationship between optimism and well-being in community elderly. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 56, 309313. doi:10.1016/j.archger.2012.08.008
Kang, S., Shaver, P. R., Sue, S., Min, K. and Jing, H. (2003). Culture-specific patterns in the prediction of life satisfaction: roles of emotion, relationship quality, and self-esteem. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 15961608. doi:10.1177/0146167203255986
Kanning, M. and Schlicht, W. (2008). A bio-psycho-social model of successful aging as shown through the variable “physical activity”. European Review of Aging and Physical Activity, 5, 7987. doi:10.1007/s11556-008-0035-4
Litwin, H. and Shiovitz-Ezra, S. (2006). The association between activity and wellbeing in later life: what really matters? Ageing and Society, 26, 225. doi:10.1017/S0144686X05004538
Litwin, H. and Stoeckel, K. J. (2013). Social networks and subjective wellbeing among older Europeans: does age make a difference? Ageing and Society, 33, 12631281.10.1017/S0144686X12000645
Lucas, R. E. and Fujita, F. (2000). Factors influencing the relation between extraversion and pleasant affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 10391056. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.79.6.1039
Martin, P. and Martin, M. (2002). Proximal and distal influences on development: the model of developmental adaptation. Developmental Review, 22, 7896. doi:10.1006/drev.2001.0538.
Ní Mhaoláin, A. M. et al. (2012). Subjective well-being amongst community-dwelling elders: what determines satisfaction with life? Findings from the Dublin healthy aging study. International Psychogeriatrics, 24, 316323. doi:10.1017/S104161021100136
Otero, J. M., Luengo, A., Romero, E., Gómez, , J. A. and Castro, C. (1998). Psicología de Personalidad. Manual de Prácticas [Personality Psychology. Practice Manual]. Barcelona: Ariel Practicum
Ozer, D. J. and Benet-Martínez, V. (2006). Personality and the prediction of consequential outcomes. Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 401421. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.57.102904.190127
Peterson, R. A. (1994). A meta-analysis of Cronbach's coefficient alpha. Journal of Consumer Research, 21, 381391.10.1086/209405
Pons, D., Atienza, F. L., Balaguer, I. and García-Merita, M. (2000). Satisfaction with life scale: analysis of factorial invariance for adolescents and elderly persons. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 91, 6268. doi:10.2466/pms.2000.91.1.62
Revilla-Ahumada, L., Luna del Castillo, J., Bailón Muñoz, E. and Medina Moruno, I. (2005). Validation of the MOS social support questionnaire in primary care [Validación del cuestionario MOS de apoyo social en atención primaria]. Medicina de Familia, 6, 1018.
Ringle, C. M., Wende, S. and Becker, J. M. (2015). SmartPLS 3. Bönningstedt: SmartPLS. Available at: http://www.smartpls.com
Robb, C., Small, B. and Haley, W. (2008). Gender differences in coping with functional disability in older married couples: the role of personality and social resources. Aging and Mental Health, 12, 423433. doi:10.1080/13607860802224326
Robinson, J. P., Shaver, P. R. and Wrightsman, L. S. (1991). Criteria for scale selection and evaluation. In Robinson, J. P., Shaver, P. R. and Wrightsman, L. S. (eds.), Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Attitudes (pp. 116). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Rowe, J. W. and Kahn, R. L. (1997). Successful aging. The Gerontologist, 37, 433440. doi:10.1093/geront/37.4.433
Rowe, J. W. and Kahn, R. L. (2015). Successful aging 2.0: conceptual expansions for the 21st century. Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 70, 593596. doi:10.1093/geronb/gbv025
Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S. and Bridges, M. W. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): a re-evaluation of the life orientation test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 10631078.10.1037/0022-3514.67.6.1063
Schimmack, U., Radhakrishnan, P., Oishi, S., Dzokoto, V. and Ahadi, S. (2002). Culture, personality, and subjective well-being: integrating process models of life satisfaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 582593. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.82.4.582
Schöllgen, I., Huxhold, O., Schüz, B. and Tesch-Römer, C. (2011). Resources for health: differential effects of optimistic self-beliefs and social support according to socioeconomic status. Health Psychology, 30, 326335.10.1037/a0022514
Sherbourne, C. D. and Stewart, A. L. (1991). The MOS social support survey. Social Science & Medicine, 32, 705714. doi:10.1016/0277-9536(91)90150-B
von Faber, M. et al. (2001). Successful aging in the oldest old: who can be characterized as successfully aged? Archives of Internal Medicine, 161, 26942700. doi:10.1001/archinte.161.22.2694
Windsor, T. D., Fiori, K. L. and Crisp, D. A. (2012). Personal and neighborhood resources, future time perspective, and social relations in middle and older adulthood. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 67, 423431. doi:10.1093/geronb/gbr117
Woods, B. and Windle, G. (2008). Personality in later life: the effects of aging on personality. In Jacoby, R., Oppenheimer, C. and Thomas, A. (eds.), Old Age Psychiatry (pp. 591604). Oxford, NY, NY: Oxford University Press.
Zarit, S. H. (2009). A good old age: theories of mental health and ageing. In Bengtson, V. L. Gans, D. N. Putney, M. and , M. Silverstein, (eds.), Handbook of Theories of Aging (2nd ed., pp. 675691). New York, USA: Springer.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Successful aging in Spanish older adults: the role of psychosocial resources

  • Cristina G. Dumitrache (a1), Laura Rubio (a1) and Eulogio Cordón-Pozo (a2)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.