Adam, S., Bonsang, E., Grotz, C. and Perelman, S. (2013). Occupational activity and cognitive reserve: implications in terms of prevention of cognitive aging and Alzheimer's disease. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 8, 377–390.
Arenaza-Urquijo, E. M., Wirth, M. and Chetelat, G. (2015). Cognitive reserve and lifestyle: moving towards preclinical Alzheimer's disease. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 7, 134. doi: 10.3389/Fnagi.2015.00134.
Auyeung, T. W., Lee, J. S. W., Kwok, T. and Woo, J. (2011). Physical frailty predicts future cognitive decline – a four-year prospective study in 2737 cognitively normal older adults. Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 15, 690–694.
Baltes, P. B. and Baltes, M. M. (1989). Selective optimization with compensation - a psychological model of successful aging. Zeitschrift für Pädagogik, 35, 85–105.
Bjork, M. P., Johansson, B. and Hassing, L. B. (2016). I forgot when I lost my grip-strong associations between cognition and grip strength in level of performance and change across time in relation to impending death. Neurobiology of Aging, 38, 68–72.
Buchman, A. S., Wilson, R. S., Boyle, P. A., Bienias, J. L. and Bennett, D. A. (2007). Grip strength and the risk of incident Alzheimer's disease. Neuroepidemiology, 29, 66–73.
et al. (2016). Objective measures of the frailty syndrome (hand grip strength and gait speed) and cardiovascular mortality: a systematic review. International Journal of Cardiology, 215, 487–493.
Deary, I. J., Whalley, L. J., Batty, G. D. and Starr, J. M. (2006). Physical fitness and lifetime cognitive change. Neurology, 67, 1195–1200.
Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E. and McHugh, P. R. (1975). Mini-mental state – practical method for grading cognitive state of patients for clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189–198.
Gatz, M., Svedberg, P., Pedersen, N. L., Mortimer, J. A., Berg, S. and Johansson, B. (2001). Education and the risk of Alzheimer's disease: findings from the study of dementia in Swedish Twins. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences B, 56, 292–300.
Hertzog, C., Kramer, A. F., Wilson, R. S. and Lindenberger, U. (2008). Enrichment effects on adult cognitive development: can the functional capacity of older adults be preserved and enhanced? Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 9, 1–65.
Hultsch, D. F., Hertzog, C., Small, B. J. and Dixon, R. A. (1999). Use it or lose it: engaged lifestyle as a buffer of cognitive decline in aging? Psychology and Aging, 14, 245–263.
et al. (2016). The relation of obesity to performance in verbal abilities, processing speed, and cognitive flexibility in old age: the role of cognitive reserve. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 42, 117–126.
et al. (2017). Associations of educational attainment and cognitive level of job with old age verbal ability and processing speed: the mediating role of chronic diseases. Applied Neuropsychology: Adult. Epublished ahead of print: April 4, 2017, doi: 10.1080/23279095.2017.1306525.
Karp, A., Paillard-Borg, S., Wang, H. X., Silverstein, M., Winblad, B. and Fratiglioni, L. (2006). Mental, physical and social components in leisure activities equally contribute to decrease dementia risk. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 21, 65–73.
McDowell, I., Xi, G. L., Lindsay, J. and Tierney, M. (2007). Mapping the connections between education and dementia. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 29, 127–141.
Oja, P. and Tuxworth, B. (eds.). (1995). EUROFIT for Adults. Assessment of Health-Related Fitness. Finland: Council of Europe Publishing.
Opdebeeck, C., Martyr, A. and Clare, L. (2016). Cognitive reserve and cognitive function in healthy older people: a meta-analysis. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 23, 40–60.
Preacher, K. J., Curran, P. J. and Bauer, D. J. (2006). Computational tools for probing interactions in multiple linear regression, multilevel modeling, and latent curve analysis. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 31, 437–448.
R Core Team (2014). R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
Raji, M. A., Kuo, Y. F., Al Snih, S., Markides, K. S., Peek, M. K. and Ottenbacher, K. J. (2005). Cognitive status, muscle strength, and subsequent disability in older Mexican Americans. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 53, 1462–1468.
Robertson, I. H. (2013). A noradrenergic theory of cognitive reserve: implications for Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiology of Aging, 34, 298–308.
Spini, D., Bernardi, L. and Oris, M. (2017). Toward a life course framework for studying vulnerability. Research in Human Development, 14, 5–25.
Stern, Y. (2009). Cognitive reserve. Neuropsychologia, 47, 2015–2028.
Stern, Y. (2012). Cognitive reserve in ageing and Alzheimer's disease. Lancet Neurology, 11, 1006–1012.
Syddall, H., Cooper, C., Martin, F., Briggs, R. and Sayer, A. A. (2003). Is grip strength a useful single marker of frailty? Age and Ageing, 32, 650–656.
et al. (2008). Physical fitness and cognitive function in an 85-year-old community-dwelling population. Gerontology, 54, 354–360.
Velghe, A., De Buyser, S., Noens, L., Demuynck, R. and Petrovic, M. (2016). Hand grip strength as a screening tool for frailty in older patients with haematological malignancies. Acta Clinica Belgica, 71, 227–230.
et al. (2016). What physical performance measures predict incident cognitive decline among intact older adults? A 4.4 year follow up study. Experimental Gerontology, 81, 110–118.
Yassuda, M. S.
et al. (2012). Frailty criteria and cognitive performance are related: data from the FIBRA study in Ermelino Matarazzo, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 16, 55–61.