Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Psychometric properties of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) and its short-form (GAI-SF) in a clinical and non-clinical sample of older adults

  • Carly Johnco (a1), Ashleigh Knight (a1), Dusanka Tadic (a1) and Viviana M. Wuthrich (a1)

Abstract

Background:

The Geriatric Anxiety Inventory is a 20-item geriatric-specific measure of anxiety severity. While studies suggest good internal consistency and convergent validity, divergent validity from measures of depression are weak. Clinical cutoffs have been developed that vary across studies due to the small clinical samples used. A six-item short form (GAI-SF) has been developed, and while this scale is promising, the research assessing the psychometrics of this scale is limited.

Methods:

This study examined the psychometric properties of GAI and GAI-SF in a large sample of 197 clinical geriatric participants with a comorbid anxiety and unipolar mood disorder, and a non-clinical control sample (N = 59).

Results:

The internal consistency and convergent validity with other measures of anxiety was adequate for GAI and GAI-SF. Divergent validity from depressive symptoms was good in the clinical sample but weak in the total and non-clinical samples. Divergent validity from cognitive functioning was good in all samples. The one-factor structure was replicated for both measures. Receiver Operating Characteristic analyses indicated that the GAI is more accurate at identifying clinical status than the GAI-SF, although the sensitivity and specificity for the recommended cutoffs was adequate for both measures.

Conclusions:

Both GAI and GAI-SF show good psychometric properties for identifying geriatric anxiety. The GAI-SF may be a useful alternative screening measure for identifying anxiety in older adults.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Psychometric properties of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) and its short-form (GAI-SF) in a clinical and non-clinical sample of older adults
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Psychometric properties of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) and its short-form (GAI-SF) in a clinical and non-clinical sample of older adults
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Psychometric properties of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) and its short-form (GAI-SF) in a clinical and non-clinical sample of older adults
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

The online version of this article is published within an Open Access environment subject to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution licence <http://creativecommons.org/licences/by/3.0/

Corresponding author

Correspondence should be addressed to: Dr Viviana M. Wuthrich, Centre for Emotional Health, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Phone: +61(2) 9850 4866; Fax: +61(2) 9850 8062. Email: Viviana.Wuthrich@mq.edu.au.

References

Hide All
Andrew, D. and Dulin, P. (2007). The relationship between self-reported health and mental health problems among older adults in New Zealand: experiential avoidance as a moderator. Aging and Mental Health, 11, 596603. doi:10.1080/13607860601086587.
Beck, A. T., Epstein, N., Brown, G. and Steer, R. A. (1988). An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: psychometric properties. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 893897. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.56.6.893.
Boddice, G., Pachana, N. A. and Byrne, G. J. (2008). The clinical utility of the geriatric anxiety inventory in older adults with cognitive impairment. Nursing Older People, 20, 3639.
Byrne, G. J. and Pachana, N. A. (2011). Development and validation of a short form of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory – The GAI-SF. International Psychogeriatrics, 23, 125131. doi:10.1017/S1041610210001237.
Byrne, G. J., Pachana, N. A., Arnold, L., Chalk, J. B. and Appadurai, K. (2008). P2–239: performance characteristics of the geriatric anxiety inventory in memory clinic attendees. Alzheimer's and Dementia, 4, T441T442. doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2008.05.1314.
Byrne, G. J., Pachana, N. A., Goncalves, D. C., Arnold, E., King, R. and Khoo, S. K. (2010). Psychometric properties and health correlates of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory in Australian community-residing older women. Aging and Mental Health, 14, 247254. doi:10.1080/13607861003587628.
Carlson, M. et al. (2011). Psychometric properties of reverse-scored items on the CES-D in a sample of ethnically diverse older adults. Psychological Assessment, 23, 558562. doi:10.1037/a0022484.
Cheung, G. (2007). Concurrent validity of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory in late-life depression. International Psychogeriatrics, 19, 333335. doi:doi:10.1017/S1041610206004340.
Cheung, G., Patrick, C., Sullivan, G., Cooray, M. and Chang, C. L. (2012). Sensitivity and specificity of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in the detection of anxiety disorders in older people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. International Psychogeriatrics, 24, 128136. doi:10.1017/S1041610211001426.
Di Nardo, P. A., Brown, T. A. and Barlow, D. H. (1994). Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV. Boston, MA: Center for Stress and Anxiety Related Disorders, Boston University.
Diefenbach, G. J., Tolin, D. F., Meunier, S. A. and Gilliam, C. M. (2009). Assessment of anxiety in older home care recipients. The Gerontologist, 49, 141153. doi:10.1093/geront/gnp019.
Feldman, L. A. (1993). Distinguishing depression and anxiety in self-report: evidence from confirmatory factor analysis on nonclinical and clinical samples. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 631638. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.61.4.631.
Gerolimatos, L. A., Gregg, J. J. and Edelstein, B. A. (2013). Assessment of anxiety in long-term care: examination of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) and its short form. International Psychogeriatrics, 25, 15331542. doi:10.1017/S1041610213000847.
Goldberg, D., Bridges, K., Duncan-Jones, P. and Grayson, D. (1988). Detecting anxiety and depression in general medical settings. British Medical Journal, 297, 897899. doi:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1834427/pdf/bmj00306-0033.pdf.
Green, J., Goldstein, F., Sirockman, B. E. and Green, R. C. (1993). Variable awareness of deficits in Alzheimer's disease. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, and Behavioral Neurology, 6, 159165.
Hazlett-Stevens, H., Ullman, J. B. and Craske, M. G. (2004). Factor structure of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire: examination of a method factor. Assessment, 11, 361370. doi:10.1177/1073191104269872.
Hopko, D. R. et al. (2003). Assessing worry in older adults: confirmatory factor analysis of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire and psychometric properties of an abbreviated model. Psychological Assessment, 15, 173183. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.15.2.173
Johnco, C., Wuthrich, V. M. and Rapee, R. M. (2013). The role of cognitive flexibility in cognitive restructuring skill acquisition among older adults. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 27, 576584. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2012.10.004.
Jongenelis, K. et al. (2005). Diagnostic accuracy of the original 30-Item and shortened versions of the Geriatric Depression Scale in nursing home patients. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20, 10671074. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.1398.
Kieffer, K. M. and Reese, R. J. (2002). A reliability generalization study of the Geriatric Depression Scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 62, 969994. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013164402238085.
Matheson, S. F. et al. (2012). Validity and reliability of the geriatric anxiety inventory in Parkinson's disease. Australasian Journal on Ageing, 31, 1316. doi:10.1111/j.1741-6612.2010.00487.x.
Meyer, T. J., Miller, M. L., Metzger, R. L. and Borkovec, T. D. (1990). Development and validation of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 28, 487495. doi:10.1016/0005-7967(90)90135-6.
Mioshi, E., Dawson, K., Mitchell, J., Arnold, R. and Hodges, J. R. (2006). The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination revised (ACE-R): a brief cognitive test battery for dementia screening. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21, 10781085. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.1610.
Newman, M. G. et al. (2002). Preliminary reliability and validity of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire-IV: a revised self-report diagnostic measure of generalized anxiety disorder. Behavior Therapy, 33, 215233. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894%2802%2980026-0.
Pachana, N. A., Byrne, G. J., Siddle, H., Koloski, N., Harley, E. and Arnold, E. (2007). Development and validation of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory. International Psychogeriatrics, 19, 103114. doi:10.1017/S1041610206003504.
Rozzini, L. et al. (2009). Anxiety symptoms in mild cognitive impairment. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 24, 300305. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.2106.
Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. and Lushene, R. E. (1970). Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Stulz, N. and Crits-Christoph, P. (2010). Distinguishing anxiety and depression in self-report: purification of the Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory-II. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 66, 927940. doi:10.1002/jclp.20701.
Wuthrich, V. M. and Rapee, R. M. (2013). Randomized controlled trial of group cognitive behavioral therapy for comorbid anxiety and depression in older adults. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 51, 779786. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2013.09.002.
Yesavage, J. A. et al. (1983). Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: a preliminary report. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 1, 3749. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3956(82)90033-4.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Psychometric properties of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) and its short-form (GAI-SF) in a clinical and non-clinical sample of older adults

  • Carly Johnco (a1), Ashleigh Knight (a1), Dusanka Tadic (a1) and Viviana M. Wuthrich (a1)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.