Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Predicting memory decline as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease in older post-menopausal women: quod erat demonstrandum?

  • Mark A. Rodrigues (a1), Jonathan K. Foster (a1) (a2), Giuseppe Verdile (a1), Karen Joesbury (a1), Richard Prince (a3), Amanda Devine (a4), Pankaj Mehta (a5), John Beilby (a6) and Ralph N. Martins (a1)...

Extract

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the major form of age-related dementia worldwide, accounting for more than two-thirds of all dementia cases. The disease is characterized by a progressive loss of cognitive and intellectual functioning (Gilman, 1997). A number of risk factors for AD have been identified. The prevalence of AD increases with age, diabetes, depression, family history of Parkinson's disease and following head injury or exposure to solvents (Jorm et al., 1991; van Duijn et al., 1991; Ott et al., 1995; Yoshitake et al., 1995; Devanand et al., 1996). Published research further suggests that low education levels are associated with increased prevalence of clinical AD (Gatz et al., 2001; Qiu et al., 2001; Ravaglia et al., 2002). Women also have a higher risk for developing the disease than men, with the risk being markedly increased following menopause (Sherwin, 2002; Sherwin 2003). Additionally, slightly more severe cognitive deficits have been reported in AD in women compared to men (Buckwalter et al., 1993, Henderson and Buckwalter, 1994). These epidemiological trends may be a consequence of reproductive hormonal changes. Specifically, menopause results in a marked diminution in gonadal estrogen production in women (see Sherwin, 2003, for a review). Estrogen plays a pivotal role in the maintenance and function of neuronal circuits in the brain and in resistance to neuronal damage (McEwen, 2001). The neuroprotective properties of estrogen are thought to be mediated at least in part by anti-amyloidogenic, anti-oxidative and ant-inflammatory mechanisms (reviewed in Barron et al., 2006a). However, limited and somewhat mixed data exist regarding the association between endogenous levels of estrogen and cognitive decline (Manly et al., 2000; Schupf et al., 2003). Based on some of our own findings, we here consider the factors that may be useful in predicting memory decline as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease in older post-menopausal women.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Predicting memory decline as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease in older post-menopausal women: quod erat demonstrandum?
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Predicting memory decline as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease in older post-menopausal women: quod erat demonstrandum?
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Predicting memory decline as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease in older post-menopausal women: quod erat demonstrandum?
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

References

Hide All
Alexopoulos, G. S., Young, R. C. and Meyers, B. S. (1993). Geriatric depression: age of onset and dementia. Biological Psychiatry, 34, 141145.
Barron, A. M., Fuller, S. J., Verdile, G. and Martins, R. N. (2006a). Reproductive hormones modulate oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease. Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, 8, 20472059.
Barron, A. M., Verdile, G. and Martins, R. N. (2006b). Gonadotropins: potential targets for preventative and therapeutic interventions in Alzheimer's disease. Future Neurology, 1, 189202.
Bellew, K. M., Pigeon, J. G., Stang, P. E., Fleischman, W., Gardner, R. M. and Baker, W. W. (2004). Hypertension and the rate of cognitive decline in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type. Alzheimer's Disease and Associated Disorders, 18, 208213.
Buckwalter, J. G., Sobel, E., Dunn, M. E., Diz, M. M. and Henderson, V. W. (1993). Gender differences on a brief measure of cognitive functioning in Alzheimer's disease. Archives of Neurology, 50, 757760.
Burkhardt, M. S. et al. (2004). Estrogen replacement therapy may improve memory functioning in the absence of APOE epsilon4. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 6, 221228.
Collie, A. and Maruff, P. (2000). The neuropsychology of preclinical Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 24, 365374.
Devanand, D. P. et al. (1996). Depressed mood and the incidence of Alzheimer's disease in the elderly living in the community. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 175182.
Drake, E. B. et al. (2000). Associations between circulating sex steroid hormones and cognition in normal elderly women. Neurology, 54, 599603.
Elias, M. F., Wolf, P. A., D'Agostino, R. B., Cobb, J. and White, L. R. (1993). Untreated blood pressure level is inversely related to cognitive functioning: the Framingham Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 138, 353364.
Evans, D. A. et al. (1997). Apolipoprotein E epsilon4 and incidence of Alzheimer disease in a community population of older persons. JAMA, 277, 822824.
Evans, D. A. et al. (2003). Incidence of Alzheimer disease in a biracial urban community: relation to apolipoprotein E allele status. Archives of Neurology, 60, 185189.
Farmer, M. E. et al. (1987). Blood pressure and cognitive performance: the Framingham Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 126, 11031114.
Farmer, M. E., Kittner, S. J., Abbott, R. D., Wolz, M. M., Wolf, P. A. and White, L. R. (1990). Longitudinally measured blood pressure, antihypertensive medication use, and cognitive performance: the Framingham Study. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 43, 475480.
Fassbender, K. et al. (2001). Simvastatin strongly reduces levels of Alzheimer's disease beta-amyloid peptides Abeta 42 and Abeta 40 in vitro and in vivo. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 98, 58565861.
Gatz, M., Svedberg, P., Pedersen, N. L., Mortimer, J. A., Berg, S. and Johansson, B. (2001). Education and the risk of Alzheimer's disease: findings from the study of dementia in Swedish twins. Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 56, 292300.
Gilman, S. (1997). Alzheimer's disease. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 40, 230245.
Hanon, O., Seux, M. L., Lenoir, H., Rigaud, A. S. and Forette, F. (2003). Hypertension and dementia. Current Cardiology Reports, 5, 435440.
Henderson, V. and Buckwalter, J. (1994). Cognitive deficits of men and women with Alzheimer's disease. Neurology, 44, 9096.
Hogervorst, E., Yaffe, K., Richards, M. and Huppert, F. A. (2009). Hormone replacement therapy to maintain cognitive function in women with dementia. Cochrane Database Systematic Review, 1, CD003799.
Hoskin, E. K., Tang, M. X., Manly, J. J. and Mayeux, R. (2004). Elevated sex-hormone binding globulin in elderly women with Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiology of Aging, 25, 141147.
Jacobs, D. M. et al. (1998). Cognitive function in nondemented older women who took estrogen after menopause. Neurology, 50, 368373.
Jick, H., Zornberg, G. L., Jick, S. S., Seshadri, S. and Drachman, D. A. (2000). Statins and the risk of dementia. Lancet, 356, 16271631.
Jorm, A. F. et al. (1991). Psychiatric history and related exposures as risk factors for Alzheimer's disease: a collaborative re-analysis of case-control studies. EURODEM Risk Factors Research Group. International Journal of Epidemiology, 20 (Suppl. 2), S43S47.
Judd, L. L. and Akiskal, H. S. (2000). Delineating the longitudinal structure of depressive illness: beyond clinical subtypes and duration thresholds. Pharmacopsychiatry, 33, 37.
Judd, L. L. et al. (2000). Does incomplete recovery from first lifetime major depressive episode herald a chronic course of illness? American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 15011504.
Kampen, D. L. and Sherwin, B. B. (1994). Estrogen use and verbal memory in healthy postmenopausal women. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 83, 979983.
Knopman, D. et al. (2001). Cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive decline in middle-aged adults. Neurology, 56, 4248.
Kral, V. A. (1983) The relationship between senile dementia (Alzheimer type) and depression. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 28, 304306.
Manly, J. J. et al. (2000). Endogenous estrogen levels and Alzheimer's disease among postmenopausal women. Neurology, 54, 833837.
McEwen, B. S. (2001). Plasticity of the hippocampus: adaptation to chronic stress and allostatic load. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 933, 265277.
Ott, A. et al. (1995). Prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia: association with education. The Rotterdam Study. BMJ, 310, 970973.
Pedrini, S., Carter, T. L., Prendergast, G., Petanceska, S., Ehrlich, M. E. and Gandy, S. (2005). Modulation of statin-activated shedding of Alzheimer APP ectodomain by ROCK. PLOS Medicine, 2, 6978.
Phillips, S. M. and Sherwin, B. B. (1992). Effects of estrogen on memory function in surgically menopausal women. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 17, 485495.
Qiu, C., Backman, L., Winblad, B., Aguero-Torres, H. and Fratiglioni, L. (2001). The influence of education on clinically diagnosed dementia: incidence and mortality data from the Kungsholmen Project. Archives of Neurology, 58, 20342039.
Ravaglia, G. et al. (2002). Education, occupation, and prevalence of dementia: findings from the Conselice study. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 14, 90100.
Remy, F., Mirrashed, F., Campbell, B. and Richter, W. (2005). Verbal episodic memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease: a combined structural and functional MRI study. Neuroimage, 25, 253266.
Rodrigues, M. A. et al. (2008). Gonadotropins and cognition in older women. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 13, 267274.
Scherr, P. A., Herbert, L. E., Smith, L. A. and Evans, D. A. (1991). Relation of blood pressure to cognitive function in the elderly. American Journal of Epidemiology, 134, 13031315.
Schupf, N. et al. (2003). Onset of dementia is associated with age at menopause in women with Down's syndrome. Annals of Neurology, 54, 433438.
Senanarong, V. et al. (2002). Endogenous estradiol in elderly individuals: cognitive and noncognitive associations. Archives of Neurology, 59, 385389.
Sherwin, B. B. (2002). Randomized clinical trials of combined estrogen-androgen preparations: effects on sexual functioning. Fertility and Sterility, 77 (Suppl. 4), S49S54.
Sherwin, B. B. (2003). Estrogen and cognitive functioning in women. Endocrine Reviews, 24, 133151.
Skoog, I. and Gustafson, D. (2003). Hypertension, hypertension-clustering factors and Alzheimer's disease. Neurological Research, 25, 675680.
Tsolaki, M. et al. (2005). Serum estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, FSH and LH levels in postmenopausal women with Alzheimer's dementia. Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 8, 3942.
van Boxtel, M. P., Buntinx, F., Houx, P. J., Metsemakers, J. F., Knotterus, A. and Jolles, J. (1998). The relation between morbidity and cognitive performance in a normal aging population. Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 53, M147M154.
van Dijk, E. J. et al. (2004). The association between blood pressure, hypertension, and cerebral white matter lesions: cardiovascular determinants of dementia study. Hypertension, 44, 625630.
van Duijn, C. M., Stijnen, T. and Hofman, A. (1991). Risk factors for Alzheimer's disease: overview of the EURODEM collaborative re-analysis of case-control studies. EURODEM Risk Factors Research Group. International Journal of Epidemiology, 20 (Suppl. 2), S4S12.
Vaughan, C. J. (2003). Prevention of stroke and dementia with statins: effects beyond lipid lowering. American Journal of Cardiology, 91, 23B29B.
Wells, K. B. et al. (1989). The functioning and well-being of depressed patients: results from the Medical Outcomes Study. JAMA, 262, 914919.
Whitmer, R. A., Sidney, S., Selby, J., Johnston, S. C. and Yaffe, K. (2005). Midlife cardiovascular risk factors and risk of dementia in late life. Neurology, 64, 277281.
Wolf, O. T. and Kirschbaum, C. (2002). Endogenous estradiol and testosterone levels are associated with cognitive performance in older women and men. Hormones and Behavior, 41, 259266.
Yaffe, K., Lui, L.-Y., Grady, D., Cauley, J., Kramer, J. and Cummings, S. R. (2000). Cognitive decline in women in relation to non-protein-bound estradiol concentrations. Lancet, 356, 708712.
Yoshitake, T. et al. (1995). Incidence and risk factors of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease in a defined elderly Japanese population: the Hisayama Study. Neurology, 45, 11611168.

Predicting memory decline as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease in older post-menopausal women: quod erat demonstrandum?

  • Mark A. Rodrigues (a1), Jonathan K. Foster (a1) (a2), Giuseppe Verdile (a1), Karen Joesbury (a1), Richard Prince (a3), Amanda Devine (a4), Pankaj Mehta (a5), John Beilby (a6) and Ralph N. Martins (a1)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.