Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Post-stroke dementia: the contribution of thalamus and basal ganglia changes

  • Marcos Antonio Lopes (a1), Michael J. Firbank (a1), Michelle Widdrington (a1), Andrew M. Blamire (a2), Raj N. Kalaria (a1) and John T. O'Brien (a1)...

Abstract

Background: The neurobiological basis of increased risk of dementia in stroke patients is unclear, though there are several related pathological changes, including white matter hyperintensities (WMH), and medial temporal atrophy. Subcortical gray matter structures have also been implicated in dementia resulting from vascular pathology, particularly vascular dementia. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of changes in subcortical gray matter structures to post-stroke dementia (PSD).

Methods: T1- and T2-weighted images and T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images were obtained on a 3-Tesla magnetic resonance (MR) system, in four groups aged over 75 years: post-stroke with dementia (PSD; 8), post-stroke no dementia (PSnoD; 33), Alzheimer's disease (AD; 26) and controls (30). Automated software was used to measure the volume of thalamus, putamen, caudate nucleus, and hippocampus as well as total WMH volume. The number of subcortical lacunes was also counted.

Results: The number of caudate lacunes was higher in the PSnoD group, compared with AD (p = 0.029) and controls (p = 0.019). The putamen volume was smaller in the stroke and AD groups, when compared with controls. In the whole stroke group, putamen lacunes were correlated with impairment in memory (Rey test; ρ = −0.365; p = 0.031), while WMH and hippocampal volume both correlated with global dysfunction.

Conclusion: Our findings implicate a variety of neurobiological substrates of dementia, such as small vessel disease and Alzheimer pathology, which develop after stroke in an old older population, with a contribution from subcortical brain structures.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence should be addressed to: Marcos Antonio Lopes, MD, PhD, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Hospital Universitário, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Rua Maria Flora Pausewang, Campus Universitário, CEP 88040-970, Florianópolis, SC, Brasil. Phone: +55 48 3721 9014. Email: lopes.marcos.ant@gmail.com.

References

Hide All
American Psychiatric Association (1987). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IIIR. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Bellebaum, C., Koch, B., Schwarz, M. and Daum, I. (2008). Focal basal ganglia lesions are associated with impairments in reward-based reversal learning. Brain, 131, 829841. doi:10.1093/brain/awn011.
Bokura, H., Kobayashi, S. and Yamaguchi, S. (1998). Distinguishing silent lacunar infarction from enlarged Virchow-Robin spaces: a magnetic resonance imaging and pathological study. Journal of Neurology, 245, 116122. doi:10.1007/s004150050189.
Borroni, B., Turla, M., Bertasi, V., Agosti, C., Gilberti, N. and Padovani, A. (2008). Cognitive and behavioral assessment in the early stages of neurodegenerative extrapyramidal syndromes. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 47, 5361. doi:10.1016/j.archger.2007.07.005.
Cohen, R. A. et al. (2002). The relationship of subcortical MRI hyperintensities and brain volume to cognitive function in vascular dementia. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 8, 743752. doi:10.1017/S1355617702860027.
Cordoliani-Mackowiak, M.-A., Hénon, H., Pruvo, J.-P., Pasquier, F. and Leys, D. (2003). Poststroke dementia: influence of hippocampal atrophy. Archives of Neurology, 60, 585590. doi:10.1001/archneur.60.4.585.
Cousins, D. A., Burton, E. J., Burn, D., Gholkar, A., McKeith, I. G. and O'Brien, J. T. (2003). Atrophy of the putamen in dementia with Lewy bodies but not Alzheimer's disease: an MRI study. Neurology, 61, 11911195.
de Jong, L. W. et al. (2008). Strongly reduced volumes of putamen and thalamus in Alzheimer's disease: an MRI study. Brain, 131, 32773285. doi:10.1093/brain/awn278.
Du, A. T. et al. (2002). Effects of subcortical ischemic vascular dementia and AD on entorhinal cortex and hippocampus. Neurology, 58, 16351641.
Firbank, M. J. et al. (2007). Medial temporal atrophy rather than white matter hyperintensities predict cognitive decline in stroke survivors. Neurobiology of Aging, 28, 16641669. doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2006.07.009.
Firbank, M. J. et al. (2011). Cerebral blood flow by arterial spin labeling in poststroke dementia. Neurology, 76, 14781484. doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e318217e76a.
Gold, G. et al. (2005). Cognitive consequences of thalamic, basal ganglia, and deep white matter lacunes in brain aging and dementia. Stroke, 36, 11841188. doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000166052.89772.b5.
Gootjes, L. et al. (2004). Regional distribution of white matter hyperintensities in vascular dementia, Alzheimer's disease and healthy aging. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 18, 180188. doi:10.1159/000079199.
Grahn, J. A., Parkinson, J. A. and Owen, A. M. (2008). The cognitive functions of the caudate nucleus. Progress in Neurobiology, 86, 141155. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2008.09.004.
Herrero, M. T., Barcia, C. and Navarro, J. M. (2002). Functional anatomy of thalamus and basal ganglia. Child's Nervous System, 18, 386404. doi:10.1007/s00381-002-0604-1.
Jokinen, H., Kalska, H., Mäntylä, R., Ylikoski, R., Hietanen, M. and Pohjasvaara, T. (2005). White matter hyperintensities as a predictor of neuropsychological deficits post-stroke. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 76, 12291233.
Kokmen, E., Whisnant, J. P., O'Fallon, W. M., Chu, C. P. and Beard, C. M. (1996). Dementia after ischemic stroke: a population-based study in Rochester, Minnesota (1960–1984). Neurology, 46, 154159.
Lowery, K. et al. (2002). Cognitive decline in a prospectively studied group of stroke survivors, with a particular emphasis on the > 75's. Age and Ageing, 31, 2427. doi:10.1093/ageing/31.suppl_3.24.
McKhann, G., Drachman, D., Folstein, M., Katzman, R., Price, D. and Stadlan, E. M. (1984). Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: report of the NINCDS-ADRDA work group under the auspices of Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer's disease. Neurology, 34, 939944.
Pasquier, F., Hénon, H. and Leys, D. (2000). Relevance of white matter changes to pre and poststroke dementia. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 903, 466469. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2000.tb06400.x.
Portas, C. M. et al. (1998). Volumetric evaluation of the thalamus in schizophrenic male patients using magnetic resonance imaging. Biological Psychiatry, 43, 649659. doi:10.1016/S0006-3223(97)00339-9.
Sachdev, P. S., Chen, X., Joscelyne, A., Wen, W., Altendorf, A. and Brodaty, H. (2007). Hippocampal size and dementia in stroke patients: the Sydney stroke study. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 260, 7177. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2007.04.006.
Swartz, R. H. and Black, S. E. (2006). Anterior-medial thalamic lesions in dementia: frequent, and volume dependently associated with sudden cognitive decline. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 77, 13071312. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2006.091561.
Swartz, R. H., Stuss, D. T., Gao, F. and Black, S. E. (2008). Independent cognitive effects of atrophy and diffuse subcortical and thalamico-cortical cerebrovascular disease in dementia. Stroke, 39, 822830. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.491936.
van der Werf, Y. D., Tisserand, D. J., Visser, P. J., Hofman, P. A. M., Vuurman, E. and Uylings, H. B. M. (2001). Thalamic volume predicts performance on tests of cognitive speed and decreases in healthy aging: a magnetic resonance imaging-based volumetric analysis. Cognitive Brain Research, 11, 377385. doi:10.1016/S0926-6410(01)00010-6
Vermeer, S. E., Prins, N. D., den Heijer, T., Hofman, A., Koudstaal, P. J. and Breteler, M. M. B. (2003). Silent brain infarcts and the risk of dementia and cognitive decline. New England Journal of Medicine, 348, 12151222. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa022066.
Wen, W. and Sachdev, P. S. (2004). Extent and distribution of white matter hyperintensities in stroke patients: the Sydney stroke study. Stroke, 35, 28132819. doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000147034.25760.3d.

Keywords

Post-stroke dementia: the contribution of thalamus and basal ganglia changes

  • Marcos Antonio Lopes (a1), Michael J. Firbank (a1), Michelle Widdrington (a1), Andrew M. Blamire (a2), Raj N. Kalaria (a1) and John T. O'Brien (a1)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed