American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV-TR. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Berbel-Garcia, A.et al. (2004). Magnetic resonance image-reversible findings in a patient with general paresis. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 31, 350–352.
Broadway, J. and Mintzer, J. (2007). The many faces of psychosis in the elderly. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 20, 551–558.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1998). Guidelines for treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. MMWR Recommendations and Reports, 47 (RR-1), 1–111.
Cleare, A. J., Jacoby, R., Tovey, S. J. and Bergmann, K. (1993). Syphilis, neither dead nor buried – A survey of psychogeriatric inpatients. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 8, 661–664.
Copeland, J.et al. (1992). Alzheimer's disease, other dementias, depression and pseudodementia: prevalence, incidence and three-year outcome in Liverpool. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 230–239.
Fadil, H., Gonzalez-Toledo, E., Kelley, B. J. and Kelley, R. E. (2006). Neuroimaging findings in neurosyphilis. Journal of Neuroimaging, 16, 286–289.
French, P., Gomberg, M., Janier, M., Schmidt, B., van Voorst Vader, P. and Young, H. (2009). IUSTI: 2008 European guidelines on the management of syphilis. International Journal of STD and AIDS, 20, 300–309.
Friedrich, F., Geusau, A., Greisenegger, S., Ossege, M. and Aigner, M. (2009). Manifest psychosis in neurosyphilis. General Hospital Psychiatry, 31, 379–381.
Hilton, C. (1998). General paralysis of the insane and AIDS in old age psychiatry: epidemiology, clinical diagnosis, serology and ethics – the way forward. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 13, 875–885.
Hooshmand, H., Escobar, M. R. and Kopf, S. W. (1972). Neurosyphilis: a study of 241 patients. JAMA, 219, 726–729.
Ide, M., Mizukami, K., Fujita, T., Ashizawa, Y. and Asada, T. (2004). A case of neurosyphilis showing a marked improvement of clinical symptoms and cerebral blood flow on single photon emission computed tomography with quantitative penicillin treatment. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 28, 417–420.
Kearney, H., Mallon, P., Kavanagh, E., Lawler, L., Kelly, P. and O’Rourke, K. (2010). Amnestic syndrome due to meningovascular neurosyphilis. Journal of Neurology, 257, 669–671.
Kent, M. E. and Romanelli, F. (2008). Reexamining syphilis: an update on epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and management. Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 42, 226–236.
Kodama, K.et al. (2000). Relationship between MRI findings and prognosis for patients with general paresis. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 12, 246–250.
Larsen, E. B. and Schultz, V. (1993). Severe consequences of delayed diagnosis and treatment of neurosyphilis[in Danish]. Ugeskr Laeger, 155, 3932.
Lin, L. R.et al. (2010). Development of a colloidal gold-immunochromatography assay to detect immunoglobulin G antibodies to Treponema pallidum with TPN17 and TPN47. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, 68, 193–200.
Lin, L. R.et al. (2011). Evaluation of a colloidal gold immunochromatography assay in the detection of Treponema pallidum specific IgM antibody in syphilis serofast reaction patients: a serologic marker for the relapse and infection of syphilis. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, 70, 10–16.
Liu, L. L.et al. (2012). Ischemic stroke as a primary symptom of neurosyphilis among HIV-negative emergency patients. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 317, 35–39.
Long, D. and Mulley, G. (2001). Dilemmas in the management of neurosyphilis in elderly patients. Reviews in Clinical Gerontology, 11, 215–227.
Luger, A. F., Schmidt, B. L. and Kaulich, M. (2000). Significance of laboratory findings for the diagnosis of neurosyphilis. International Journal of STD and AIDS, 11, 224–234.
Luo, W., Ouyang, Z., Xu, H., Chen, J., Ding, M. and Zhang, B. (2008). The clinical analysis of general paresis with 5 cases. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 20, 490–493.
Marra, C. M. (2009). Update on neurosyphilis. Current Infectious Disease Reports, 11, 127–134.
Mitsonis, C. H.et al. (2008). Incidence and clinical presentation of neurosyphilis: a retrospective study of 81 cases. International Journal of Neuroscience, 118, 1251–1257.
Omer, T. A., Fitzgerald, D. E., Sheehy, N. and Doherty, C. P. (2012). Neurosyphilis presenting with unusual hippocampal abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography scans: a case report. Journal of Medical Case Reports, 6, 1–4.
Russouw, H. G., Roberts, M. C., Emsley, R. A. and Truter, R. (1997). Psychiatric manifestations and magnetic resonance imaging in HIV-negative neurosyphilis. Biological Psychiatry, 41, 467–473.
Shah, B. B. and Lang, A. E. (2012). Acquired neurosyphilis presenting as movement disorders. Movement Disorders, 27, 690–695.
Sun, X.-D., Cheng, F., Shi, X., Xu, G.-X. and Liu, C.-F. (2010). Neurosyphilis presenting as diplopia: a literature review. The Chinese Journal of Dermatovenereology, 6, 021.
Tong, M.-L.et al. (2013a). Laboratory findings in neurosyphilis patients with epileptic seizures alone as the initial presenting symptom. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, 75, 377–380.
Tong, M.-L.et al. (2013b). Spectrum and characterization of movement disorders secondary to neurosyphilis. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders, 19, 441–445.
Yu, Y.et al. (2010). Clinical presentation and imaging of general paresis due to neurosyphilis in patients negative for human immunodeficiency virus. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, 17, 308–310.
Zheng, D.et al. (2011). The clinical presentation and imaging manifestation of psychosis and dementia in general paresis: a retrospective study of 116 cases. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 23, 300–307.