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Measurement equivalence across gender and education in the WHOQOL-BREF for community-dwelling elderly Taiwanese

  • Chung-Ying Lin (a1), Yueh-Ping Li (a2), Sang-I Lin (a3) and Ching-Huey Chen (a4)



The WHOQOL-BREF, a generic quality of life (QoL) instrument, has been widely used clinically and for research on older populations. However, its measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) has not been well examined for the elderly (≥ 65 years) across some different demographics.


The data were derived from a cross-sectional study with a convenience sampling design in Taiwan. We enrolled 244 elderly participants: men = 143 (58.6%); educational level ≤ primary school = 121 (49.6%). The ME/I was examined using multiple group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) across gender and educational level.


The fit indices were satisfactory for the configural models of gender and educational level (standardized root mean square residual [SRMR] = 0.0742 and 0.0770; root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = 0.0655 and 0.0686; comparative fit index [CFI] = 0.953). In addition, MGCFAs showed that ME/I was supported across gender (ΔSRMR = 0.001 to 0.019; ΔRMSEA = −0.003 to 0.001; ΔCFI = −0.003 to 0.000) and educational level (ΔSRMR = 0.002 to 0.006; ΔRMSEA = −0.002 to 0.004; ΔCFI = −0.007 to 0.000).


The WHOQOL-BREF Taiwan version is appropriate for combined use and for comparisons in older people across gender and different educational levels.


Corresponding author

Correspondence should be addressed to: Yueh-Ping Li, Assistant Professor, Department of Nursing, College of Medicine and Life Science, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, No. 89, Wenhua 1st ST., Rende Dist., Tainan 71703, Taiwan, Republic Of China. Email: Phone: 884-6-2674567 # 518; Fax: 884-6-2605792.


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International Psychogeriatrics
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