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The German version of the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE): evaluation of content validity and adaptation to the German-speaking context

  • Janine Stein (a1), Melanie Luppa (a1), Hans-Helmut König (a2) and Steffi G. Riedel-Heller (a1)



The Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE) was developed for the assessment of physical-, psychological-, and environment-related needs in the elderly. The aim of this study was to revise and adapt the German version of the CANE with regard to the content validity of the instrument.


Following a multistage approach, face-to-face interviews using the CANE, an expert survey and a multidisciplinary consensus conference were conducted in order to evaluate the frequency and relevance of met and unmet needs in the German elderly population, and to modify the content of the CANE for the German-speaking countries.


In Germany, unmet physical needs including physical health, medication, eyesight/hearing/communication, mobility/falls, self-care, and continence were found to have top priority closely followed by social needs (company, intimate relationships, daytime activities, information, and abuse/neglect). Psychological needs were the lowest ranked care category. Experts’ proposals for the improvement of the German version of the CANE were collected. All findings were discussed and integrated in the multidisciplinary consensus conference with the result of a revised and adapted CANE that is applicable in the German-speaking context.


The provision of an adapted and improved German version of the CANE may substantially contribute to a comprehensive and valid assessment of needs in the elderly population. The results of this study represent an important basis for comprehensive needs assessment in the elderly in the theoretical and practical field of healthcare and health services research.


Corresponding author

Correspondence should be addressed to: Dr. Janine Stein, Institute of Social Medicine, Occupational Health and Public Health, Medical Faculty, University of Leipzig, Philipp-Rosenthal-Straße 55, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. Phone: +49-341-9724494; Fax: +49-341-9724569. Email:


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The German version of the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE): evaluation of content validity and adaptation to the German-speaking context

  • Janine Stein (a1), Melanie Luppa (a1), Hans-Helmut König (a2) and Steffi G. Riedel-Heller (a1)


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