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Effects of cognitive speed of processing training on a composite neuropsychological outcome: results at one-year from the IHAMS randomized controlled trial

  • Fredric D. Wolinsky (a1), Mark W. Vander Weg (a2), M. Bryant Howren (a2), Michael P. Jones (a3) and Megan M. Dotson (a4)...



Age-related cognitive decline is common and well-documented. Cognitive speed of processing training (SOPT) has been shown to improve trained abilities (Useful Field of View; UFOV), but transfer to individual non-trained cognitive outcomes or neuropsychological composites is sparse. We examine the effects of SOPT on a composite of six equally weighted tests – UFOV, Trail-making A and B, Symbol Digit Modality, Controlled Oral Word Association, Stroop Color and Word, and Digit Vigilance.


681 patients were randomized separately within two age-bands (50–64, ≥ 65) to three SOPT groups (10 initial hours on-site, 10 initial hours on-site plus 4 hours of boosters, or 10 initial hours at-home) or an attention-control group (10 initial hours on-site of crossword puzzles). At one-year, 587 patients (86.2%) had complete data. A repeated measures linear mixed model was used.


Factor analysis revealed a simple unidimensional structure with Cronbach's α of 0.82. The time effect was statistically significant ( p < 0.001; ηp 2 = 0.246), but the time by treatment group ( p = 0.331), time by age-band ( p = 0.463), and time by treatment group by age-band ( p = 0.564) effects were not.


Compared to the attention-control group who played a computerized crossword puzzle game, assignment to 10–14 hours of SOPT did not significantly improve a composite measure of cognitive abilities.


Corresponding author

Correspondence should be addressed to: Fredric D. Wolinsky, John W. Colloton Chair of Health Management and Policy, College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA. Phone: +319-384-3821; Fax: +319-384-4371. Email:


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Effects of cognitive speed of processing training on a composite neuropsychological outcome: results at one-year from the IHAMS randomized controlled trial

  • Fredric D. Wolinsky (a1), Mark W. Vander Weg (a2), M. Bryant Howren (a2), Michael P. Jones (a3) and Megan M. Dotson (a4)...


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