Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Depression in older people living in residential homes

  • Briony Dow (a1), Xiaoping Lin (a1), Jean Tinney (a1), Betty Haralambous (a1) and David Ames (a1) (a2)...

Extract

There is a large body of published research relating to depression in residential homes for older people (also called long-term-care homes, and including both nursing homes and hostels) (Ames 1990; 1993; Seitz et al., 2010; Snowdon and Purandare, 2010; Snowdon, 2010). However, despite increased detection and more frequent treatment in recent years, depression remains a significant problem for many older people living in such settings. This guest editorial summarizes current knowledge about prevalence, etiology, detection and screening, treatment and outcomes of depression in residential homes and concludes with a summary of key issues requiring urgent future action.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Depression in older people living in residential homes
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Depression in older people living in residential homes
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Depression in older people living in residential homes
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

References

Hide All
Achterberg, W., Pot, A. M., Kerkstra, A., Ooms, M., Muller, M. and Ribbe, M. (2003). The effect of depression on social engagement in newly admitted Dutch nursing home residents. The Gerontologist, 43, 213218.
Alexopoulos, G. S., Abrams, R. C., Young, R. C. and Shamoian, C. A. (1988). Cornell Scale for depression in dementia. Biological Psychiatry, 23, 271284.
American Geriatrics Society and American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry (2003). Consensus statement on improving the quality of mental health care in US nursing homes: management of depression and behavioral symptoms associated with dementia. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51, 12871298.
American Psychiatric Association (1994). DSM-IV: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn.Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Ames, D. (1990). Depression among elderly residents in local authority homes for the elderly: its nature and the efficacy of intervention. British Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 667675.
Ames, D. (1992). Psychiatric diagnoses made by the AGECAT system in residents of local authority homes for the elderly: outcome and diagnostic stability after four years. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 7, 8387.
Ames, D. (1993). Depressive disorders among elderly people in long-term institutional care. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 27, 379391.
Ames, D., Ashby, D., Mann, A. H. and Graham, N. (1988). Psychiatric illness in elderly residents of Part III homes in one London borough: prognosis and review. Age and Ageing, 17, 249256.
Anstey, K. J., von Sanden, C. A., Sargent-Cox, K. and Luszcz, M. A. (2007). Prevalence and risk factors for depression in a longitudinal, population-based study including individuals in the community and residential care. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15, 497505.
Asghari, A., Ghaderi, N. and Ashory, A. (2006). The prevalence of pain among residents of nursing homes and the impact of pain on their mood and quality of life. Archives of Iranian Medicine, 9, 368373.
Ashby, D., Ames, D., West, C. R., MacDonald, A., Graham, N. and Mann, A. H. (1991). Psychiatric morbidity as predictor of mortality for residents of local authority homes for the elderly. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 6, 567575.
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) (2010). Residential Aged Care in Australia 2008–09: A Statistical Overview. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.
Ayalon, L., Arean, P. and Bornfeld, H. (2008). Correlates of knowledge and beliefs about depression among long-term care staff. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 23, 356363.
Bagley, H. et al. (2000). Recognition of depression by staff in nursing and residential homes. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 9, 445450.
Baldwin, R. (2008). Mood disorders: depressive disorders. In Jacoby, R., Oppenheimer, C., Dening, T. and Thomas, A. (eds.), Oxford Textbook of Old Age Psychiatry (pp. 529556). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Banazak, D. A., Mullan, P. B., Gardiner, J. C. and Rajagopalan, S. (1999). Practice guidelines and late-life depression assessment in long-term care. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 14, 438440.
Barca, M. L., Engedal, K., Laks, J. and Selbaek, G. (2010). A 12 months’ follow-up study of depression among nursing-home patients in Norway. Journal of Affective Disorders, 120, 141148.
Bell, M. and Goss, A. J. (2001). Recognition, assessment and treatment of depression in geriatric nursing home residents. Clinical Excellence for Nurse Practitioners, 5, 2636.
Bharucha, A., Dew, M., Miller, M., Borson, S. and Reynolds, C. (2006). Psychotherapy in long-term care: a review. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 7, 568580.
Boyle, V. L., Roychoudhury, C., Beniak, R., Cohn, L., Bayer, A. and Katz, I. (2004). Recognition and management of depression in skilled-nursing and long-term care settings: evolving targets for quality improvement. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 12, 288295.
Brodaty, H. et al. (2001). Psychosis, depression and behavioural disturbances in Sydney nursing home residents: prevalence and predictors. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 16, 504512.
Brooker, D. and Woolley, R. (2007). Enriching opportunities for people living with dementia: The development of a blueprint for a sustainable activity-based model. Aging and Mental Health, 11, 371383.
Brooker, D., Woolley, R. and Lee, D. (2007). Enriching opportunities for people living with dementia in nursing homes: an evaluation of a multi-level activity-based model of care. Aging and Mental Health, 11, 361370.
Brown, E., Raue, P., Schulberg, H. and Bruce, M. (2006). Clinical competencies: caring for late-life depression in home care patients. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 32, 1014.
Brown, M. N., Lapane, K. L. and Luisi, A. F. (2002). The management of depression in older nursing home residents. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 50, 6976.
Brühl, K. G., Hendrika, J. L. and Martien, T. M. (2007). Nurses’ and nursing assistants’ recognition of depression in elderly who depend on long-term care. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 8, 441445.
Buettner, L. L. and Fitzsimmons, S. (2002). AD-venture program: therapeutic biking for the treatment of depression in long-term care residents with dementia. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias, 17, 121127.
Burrows, A. B. (1995). Depression in a long-term care facility: clinical features and discordance between nursing assessment and patient interviews. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 43, 11181122.
Burrows, A., Morris, J., Simon, S., Hirdes, J. and Phillips, C. (2000). Development of a minimum data set-based depression rating scale for use in nursing homes. Age and Ageing, 29, 165172.
Burrows, A. B., Salzman, C., Satlin, A., Noble, K., Pollock, B. G. and Gersh, T. (2002). A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of paroxetine in nursing home residents with non-major depression. Depression and Anxiety, 15, 102110.
Carlson, W. L. and Snowden, M. (2007). Improving treatment for depression in the nursing home population: integrating the model of the depression care manager. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 15, 128132.
Cataldo, J. K. (1994). Hardiness and death attitudes: predictors of depression in the institutionalized elderly. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 8, 326332.
Cernin, P. A. and Lichtenberg, P. A. (2009). Behavioural treatment for depressed mood: a pleasant events intervention for seniors residing is assisted living. Clinical Gerontologist, 32, 324331.
Chao, S.-Y. et al. (2006). The effects of group reminiscence therapy on depression, self esteem, and life satisfaction of elderly nursing home residents. Journal of Nursing Research, 14, 3645.
Choi, N. G., Ransom, S. and Wyllie, R. J. (2008). Depression in older nursing home residents: the influence of nursing home environmental stressors, coping, and acceptance of group and individual therapy. Aging and Mental Health, 12, 536547.
Choi, N. G., Wyllie, R. J. and Ransom, S. (2009). Risk factors and intervention programs for depression in nursing home residents: nursing home staff interview findings. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 52, 668685.
Chow, E. S. L. et al. (2004). The prevalence of depressive symptoms among elderly Chinese private nursing home residents in Hong Kong. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19, 734740.
Chung, S. (2008). Residential status and depression among Korean elderly people: a comparison between residents of nursing home and those based in the community. Health and Social Care in the Community, 16, 370377.
Conn, D. and Snowdon, J. (2010). Optimizing mental health in long-term care homes. International Psychogeriatrics, 22, 10231024.
Cuijpers, P. (2001). Mortality and depressive symptoms in inhabitants of residential homes. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 16, 131138.
Cuijpers, P. and Lammeren, P. V. (1999). Depressive symptoms in chronically ill elderly people in residential homes. Aging and Mental Health, 3, 221226.
Datto, C. J., Oslin, D. W., Streim, J. E., Scheinthal, S. M., DiFilippo, S. and Katz, I. R. (2002). Pharmacologic treatment of depression in nursing home residents: a mental health services perspective. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 15, 141146.
Davidson, S., Koritsas, S., O'Connnor, D. W. and Clarke, D. (2006). The feasibility of a GP led screening intervention for depression among nursing home residents. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21, 10261030.
de Bellis, A. and Williams, J. (2008). The Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia in the context of the Australian Aged Care Funding Instrument: a literature review. Contemporary Nurse, 30, 2031.
Draper, B. et al. (2001). Use of psychotropics in Sydney nursing homes: associations with depression, psychosis, and behavioral disturbances. International Psychogeriatrics, 13, 107120.
Dwyer, M. and Byrne, G. J. A. (2000). Disruptive vocalization and depression in older nursing home residents. International Psychogeriatrics, 12, 463471.
Eisses, A. M. H., Kluiter, H., Jongenelis, K., Pot, A. M., Beekman, A. T. F. and Ormel, J. (2004). Risk indicators of depression in residential homes. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19, 634640.
Fitzsimmons, S. (2001). Easy rider wheelchair biking: a nursing-recreation therapy clinical trial for the treatment of depression. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 27, 1423.
Garavaglia, B. (2004). Avoiding drug-induced depression in nursing home residents. Nursing Homes: Long Term Care Management, 53, 110111.
George, K., Davison, T. E., McCabe, M., Mellor, D. and Moore, K. (2007). Treatment of depression in low-level residential care facilities for the elderly. International Psychogeriatrics, 19, 11531160.
Gerety, M. B. et al. (1994). Performance of case-finding tools for depression in the nursing home: Influence of clinical and functional characteristics and selection of optimal threshold scores. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 42, 11031109.
Glaister, J. A. and Blair, C. (2008). Improved education and training for nursing assistants: keys to promoting the mental health of nursing home residents. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 29, 863872.
Gruber-Baldini, A. L., Zimmerman, S., Boustani, M., Watson, L. C., Williams, C. S. and Reed, P. S. (2005). Characteristics associated with depression in long-term care residents with dementia. The Gerontologist, 45, 5055.
Henderson, A. S., Korten, A. E., Jorm, A. F., Christensen, H., Mackinnon, A. J. and Scott, L. R. (1994). Are nursing homes depressing. The Lancet, 344, 1091.
Hyer, L., Carpenter, B., Bishmann, D. and Wu, H.-S. (2005). Depression in long-term care. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 12, 280299.
Hyer, L., Yeager, C. A., Hilton, N. and Sacks, A. (2008). Group, individual, and staff therapy: an efficient and effective cognitive behavioral therapy in long-term care. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias, 23, 528539.
Jones, R. N., Marcantonio, E. R. and Rabinowitz, T. (2003). Prevalence and correlates of recognized depression in US nursing homes. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51, 1404.
Jones, R. et al. (2004). Measuring depression in nursing home residents with the MDS and GDS. The Gerontologist, 44, 5556.
Jongenelis, K. et al. (2005). Diagnostic accuracy of the original 30-item and shortened versions of the Geriatric Depression Scale in nursing home patients. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20, 10671074.
Jordan, F., Byrne, G. and Bushell, A. (2009). Improving Mental Health in Aged Care Facilities: A Feasibility Study. Lutwyche, Queensland: in partnership with GPpartners, Deakin University, beyondblue, University of Queensland and Carers Queensland (funded by the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing).
Junginger, J., Phelan, E., Cherry, K. and Levy, J. (1993). Prevalence of psychopathology in elderly persons in nursing homes and in the community. Hospital Community Psychiatry, 44, 381383.
Kallenbach, L. E. and Rigler, S. K. (2006). Identification and management of depression in nursing facility residents. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 7, 448455.
Kerber, C. S., Dyck, M. J., Culp, K. R. and Buckwalter, K. (2005). Comparing the Geriatric Depression Scale, Minimum Data Set, and Primary Care Provider Diagnosis for Depression in Rural Nursing Home Residents. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 11, 269275.
Koritsas, S., Davidson, S., Clarke, D. and O'Connor, D. (2006). Diagnosing and treating depressions in nursing home residents: challenges for GPs. Australian Journal of Primary Health, 12, 104108.
Krach, P., DeVaney, S., DeTurk, C. and Zink, M. H. (1996). Functional status of the oldest-old in a home setting. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 24, 456464.
Lach, H., Chang, Y. and Edwards, D. (2010). Can older adults with dementia accurately report dementia using brief forms? Reliability and validity of the Geriatric Depression Scale. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 36, 3037.
Leo, R. J., Sherry, C., DiMartino, S. and Karuza, J. (2002). Psychiatric consultation in the nursing home: referral patterns and recognition of depression. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 53, 783787.
Lin, P.-C., Wang, H.-H. and Huang, H.-T. (2007). Depressive symptoms among older residents at nursing homes in Taiwan. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 16, 17191725.
Llewellyn-Jones, R. H. and Snowdon, J. (2007). Depression in nursing homes: ensuring adequate treatment. CNS Drugs, 21, 627640.
Llewellyn-Jones, R. H., Baikie, K. A., Smithers, H., Cohen, J., Snowdon, J. and Tennant, C. C. (1999). Multifaceted shared care intervention for late life depression in residential care: randomised controlled trial. BMJ, 319, 676682.
Llewellyn-Jones, R. H. et al. (2001). How to help depressed older people living in residential care: a multifaceted shared-care intervention for late life depression. International Psychogeriatrics, 13, 477492.
Masand, P. S. (1995). Depression in long-term care facilities. Geriatrics, 50, S16S24.
McCabe, M. P., Russo, S., Mellor, D., Davison, T. E. and George, K. (2008). Effectiveness of a training program for carers to recognize depression among older people. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 23, 12901296.
McCurren, C. (2002). Assessment for depression among nursing home elders: evaluation of the MDS mood assessment. Geriatric Nursing, 23, 103108.
McCurren, C., Dowe, D., Rattle, D. and Looney, S. (1999). Depression among nursing home elders: Testing an intervention strategy. Applied Nursing Research, 12, 185195.
McDougall, F. A., Matthews, F. E., Kvaal, K., Dewey, M. E. and Brayne, C. (2007). Prevalence and symptomatology of depression in older people living in institutions in England and Wales. Age and Ageing, 36, 562568.
Meeks, S. (2004). Further evaluation of the MDS Depression Scale versus the Geriatric Depression Scale among nursing home residents. Journal of Mental Health and Aging, 10, 325335.
Meeks, S. and Depp, C. A. (2003). Pleasant events-based behavioral intervention for depression in nursing home residents: a conceptual and empirical foundation. Clinical Gerontologist, 25, 125148.
Meeks, S., Looney, S., Haitsma, K. and Teri, L. (2008). BE-ACTIV: a staff-assisted behavioral intervention for depression in nursing homes. The Gerontologist, 48, 105114.
Meeks, S., Shah, S. N. and Ramsey, S. K. (2009). The Pleasant Events Schedule – Nursing Home Version: a useful tool for behavioral interventions in long-term care. Aging and Mental Health, 13, 445455.
Morris, C. (2008). Managing depression among older people in care homes. Nursing and Residential Care, 10, 145148.
Mozley, C. G. et al. (2000). Psychiatric symptomatology in elderly people admitted to nursing and residential homes. Aging and Mental Health, 4, 136141.
National Nursing Homes Survey (2004). www.cdc.gov/nchs/nnhs.htm; last accessed 6 January 2011.
O'Connor, D. W., Griffith, J. and McSweeney, K. (2010). Changes to psychotropic medications in the six months after admission to nursing homes in Melbourne, Australia. International Psychogeriatrics, 22, 11491153.
Owsley, C., McGwin, G. Jr., Scilley, K., Meek, G. C., Seker, D. and Dyer, A. (2007). Effect of refractive error correction on health-related quality of life and depression in older nursing home residents. Archives of Ophthalmology, 125, 14711477.
Parmelee, P., Katz, I. and Lawton, M. (1991). The relationship of pain to depression among instituitionalized aged. Journal of Gerontology, 46, 1521.
Parmelee, P. A., Katz, I. R. and Lawton, M. P. (1992a). Depression and mortality among institutionalized aged Journal of Gerontology, 47, 310.
Parmelee, P. A., Katz, I. R. and Lawton, M. P. (1992b). Incidence of depression in long-term care settings. Journal of Gerontology, 47, M189M196.
Payne, J. L. et al. (2002). Incidence, prevalence, and outcomes of depression in residents of a long-term care facility with dementia. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17, 247253.
Plastow, N. A. (2006). Libraries of life: using life history books with depressed care home residents. Geriatric Nursing, 27, 217221.
Pot, A. M., Deeg, D. J. H., Twisk, J. W. R., Beekman, A. T. F. and Zarit, S. H. (2005). The longitudinal relationship between the use of long-term care and depressive symptoms in older adults. The Gerontologist, 45, 359369.
Reiss, N. S. and Tishler, C. L. (2008). Suicidality in nursing home residents. Part I: prevalence, risk factors, methods, assessment, and management. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 39, 264270.
Ribbe, M.W. et al. (1997). Nursing homes in 10 nations: a comparison between countries and settings. Age and Ageing, 26, 312.
Rinaldi, P. et al. (2003). Validation of the five-item Geriatric Depression Scale in elderly subjects in three different settings. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51, 694698.
Rosen, J., Mulsant, B. H. and Pollock, B. G. (2000). Sertraline in the treatment of minor depression in nursing home residents: a pilot study. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15, 177180.
Rovner, B. W. and Katz, I. R. (1993). Psychiatric disorders in the nursing home: a selective review of studies related to clinical care. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 8, 7587.
Rovner, B. W., German, P. S., Brant, L. J., Clark, R., Burton, L. and Folstein, M. F. (1991). Depression and mortality in nursing homes. JAMA, 265, 993996.
Ruckdeschel, K. P. D., Thompson, R. P. D., Datto, C. J. M. D., Streim, J. E. M. D. and Katz, I. R. (2004). Using the Minimum Data Set 2.0 Mood Disturbance items as a self-report screening instrument for depression in nursing home residents. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 12, 4349.
Samuels, S. C. and Katz, I. B. (1995). Depression in the nursing home. Psychiatric Annals, 25, 419424.
Sandberg, O., Gustafson, Y., Brännström, B. and Bucht, G. (1998). Prevalence of dementia, delirium and psychiatric symptoms in various care settings for the elderly. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, 26, 5662.
Segal, D. L. (2005). Relationships of assertiveness, depression, and social support among older nursing home residents. Behavior Modification, 29, 689695.
Seitz, D., Purandare, N. and Conn, D. (2010). Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among older adults in long-term care homes: a systematic review. International Psychogeriatrics, 22, 10251039.
Shah, A., Phongsathorn, V., George, C., Bielawska, C. and Katona, C. (1993). Does psychiatric morbidity predict mortality in continuing care geriatric inpatients? International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 8, 255259.
Sheehan, B., D'Souza, G., Nwe, T. and O'Malley, R. (2007). Are care homes depressing for people with dementia? International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 22, 816817.
Smalbrugge, M., Jongenelis, L., Pot, A. M., Eefsting, J. A., Ribbe, M. W. and Beekman, A. T. (2006a). Incidence and outcome of depressive symptoms in nursing home patients in the Netherlands. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 14, 10691076.
Smalbrugge, M., Pot, A. M., Jongenelis, L., Gundy, C. M., Beekman, A. T. F. and Eefsting, J. A. (2006b). The impact of depression and anxiety on well being, disability and use of health care services in nursing home patients. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21, 325332.
Smoliner, C., Norman, K., Wagner, K.-H., Hartig, W., Lochs, H. and Pirlich, M. (2009). Malnutrition and depression in the institutionalised elderly. British Journal of Nutrition, 102, 16631667.
Snowden, M., Sato, K. and Roy-Byrne, P. (2003). Assessment and treatment of nursing home residents with depression or behavioral symptoms associated with dementia: a review of the literature. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51, 13051317.
Snowdon, J. (2010). Depression in nursing homes. International Psychogeriatrics, 1143–1148.
Snowdon, J. and Purandare, N. (2010). Residential care for people with dementia. In: Ames, D., Burns, A. and O'Brien, J. T. (eds.), Dementia, 4th edition (pp. 266274). London: Hodder Arnold.
Snowdon, J., Burgess, E., Vaughan, R. and Miller, R. (1996). Use of antidepressants and the prevalence of depression and cognitive impairment in Sydney nursing homes. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 11, 599606.
Stout, I., Wilkin, D. and Jolley, D. J. (1993). Psychiatric morbidity among ‘able’ residents of part III homes. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 8, 949952.
Suominen, K., Henriksson, M., Isometsä, E., Conwell, Y., Heilä, H. and Lönnqvist, J. (2003). Nursing home suicides: a psychological autopsy study. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 18, 10951101.
Sutcliffe, C. et al. (2007). Depressed mood, cognitive impairment, and survival in older people admitted to care homes in England. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 15, 708715.
Teresi, J., Abrams, R., Holmes, D., Ramirez, M. and Eimicke, J. (2001). Prevalence of depression and depression recognition in nursing homes. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 36, 613620.
Tsai, Y.-F., Chung, J. W. Y., Wong, T. K. S. and Huang, C.-M. (2005). Comparison of the prevalence and risk factors for depressive symptoms among elderly nursing home residents in Taiwan and Hong Kong. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20, 315321.
Tsai, Y.-F., Wong, T. K. S., Tsai, H.-H. and Ku, Y.-C. (2008). Self-worth therapy for depressive symptoms in older nursing home residents. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 64, 488494.
Tsai, C.-F. et al. (2009). Depression is the Strongest independent risk factor for poor social engagement among Chinese elderly veteran assisted-living residents. Journal of the Chinese Medical Association, 72, 478483.
Watson, L. C. et al. (2006). Depression in assisted living is common and related to physical burden. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 14, 876883.
Watson, L. C., Zimmerman, S., Cohen, L. W. and Dominik, R. (2009). Practical depression screening in residential care/assisted living: five methods compared with gold standard diagnoses. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17, 556564.
Weintraub, D., Datto, C. J., Streim, J. E. and Katz, I. R. (2002). Second-generation issues in the management of depression in nursing homes. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 50, 21002101.
Weyerer, S., Häfner, H., Mann, A. H., Ames, D. and Graham, N. (1995). Prevalence and course of depression among elderly residential home admissions in Mannheim and Camden London. International Psychogeriatrics, 7, 479493.
Wittenberg, R., Comas-Herrera, A., Pickard, L. and Hancock, R. (2004). Future Demand for Long-term Care in the UK: A Summary of Projections of Long-Term Care Finance for Older People to 2051. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
Wood, S., Cummings, J. L., Schnelle, B. and Stephens, M. (2002). A videotape-based training method for improving the detection of depression in residents of long-term care facilities. The Gerontologist, 42, 114118.
World Health Organization (1992). International Classification of Diseases: 10th revision. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Zeiss, A. M. (2005). Depression in long-term care: contrasting a disease model with attention to environmental impact. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 12, 300302.
Zerhusen, J. D., Boyle, K. and Wilson, W. (1991). Out of the darkness: group cognitive therapy for depressed elderly. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 29, 1621.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed