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A Cross-National Self-Report Measure of Depressive Symptomatology

  • Margaret Gatz (a1), Boo Johansson (a2), Nancy Pedersen (a3), Stig Berg (a2) and Chandra Reynolds (a1)...


The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) was administered in Swedish to two representative samples, one aged 84 to 90 (mean = 87), the second aged 29 to 95 (mean = 61). There were both linear and quadratic differences with age: the oldest individuals were highest on depressive symptoms, but younger adults were higher than middle-aged. Dimensions or subscales identified by previous studies were generally replicated, including a sadness and depressed mood factor, a psychomotor retardation and loss of energy factor, and a well-being factor (on which items are reverse-scored to indicate depression). The findings support cross-national use of the CES-D to assess self-reported symptoms of depression in adults and older adults.


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International Psychogeriatrics
  • ISSN: 1041-6102
  • EISSN: 1741-203X
  • URL: /core/journals/international-psychogeriatrics
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