Alexopoulos, G. S., Abrams, R. C., Young, R. C. and Shamoian, C. A. (1988). Cornell Scale for depression in dementia. Biological Psychiatry, 23, 271–284.
American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th Text Revision DSM-IV-TR). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.
Charlson, M. E., Pompei, P., Ales, K. L. and MacKenzie, R. C. (1987). A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: development and validation. Journal of Chronic Diseases, 40, 373–383.
Cole, M. G., McCusker, J., Dendukuri, N. and Han, L. (2002). Symptoms of delirium among elderly medical inpatients with or without dementia. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 14, 167–175.
Cole, M. G.
et al. (2011). Subsyndromal delirium in older long-term care residents: incidence, risk factors, and outcomes. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 59, 1829–1836.
Cole, M. G.
et al. (2012). Symptoms of delirium occurring before and after episodes of delirium in older long-term care residents. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 60, 2302–2307.
Cole, M. G.
et al. (2013). Symptoms of delirium predict incident delirium in older long-term care residents. International Psychogeriatrics, 25, 887–894.
Fitzmaurice, G. M., Laird, N. M. and Ware, J. H. (2004). Applied Longitudinal Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E. and McHugh, P. R. (1975). “Mini-Mental State”: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189–198.
Fries, B. E., Mehr, D. R., Schneider, D., Foley, W. J. and Burke, R. (1993). Mental dysfunction and resource use in nursing homes. Medical Care, 31, 898–920.
Inouye, S. K.
et al. (1990). Clarifying confusion: the Confusion Assessment Method, a new method for detection of delirium. Annals of Internal Medicine, 113, 941–948.
Kiely, D. K.
et al. (2003). Delirium among newly admitted postacute facility patients: prevalence, symptoms, and severity. The Journals of Gerontology Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 58, M441–M445.
et al. (2006). The geriatric depression scale and the cornell scale for depression in dementia. A validity study. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 60, 360–364.
Landreville, P., Voyer, P. and Carmichael, P. H. (2013). Relationship between delirium and behavioral symptoms of dementia. International Psychogeriatrics, 25, 635–643.
Mahoney, F. I. and Barthel, D. W. (1965). Functional evaluation: the Barthel index. Maryland State Medical Journal, 14, 61–65.
McCusker, J., Cole, M. G., Dendukuri, N. and Belzile, E. (2004). The delirium Index: a measure of the severity of delirium: new findings on reliability, validity and responsiveness. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 52, 1744–1749.
et al. (2011a). Prevalence and incidence of delirium in long-term care. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 26, 1152–1161.
et al. (2011b). Use of nurse-observed symptoms of delirium in long-term care: effects on prevalence and outcomes of delirium. International Psychogeriatrics, 23, 602–608.
et al. (2013). Environmental factors predict the severity of delirium symptoms in long-term care residents with and without delirium. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 61, 502–511.
Meagher, D. J.
et al. (2010). A comparison of neuropsychiatric and cognitive profiles in delirium, dementia, comorbid delirium–dementia and cognitively intact controls. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 81, 876–881.
Pan, W. (2001). Akaike's information criterion in generalized estimating equations. Biometrics, 57, 120–125.
Pitkala, K. H., Laurila, J. V., Strandberg, T. E. and Tilvis, R. S. (2005). Prognostic significance of delirium in frail older people. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 19, 158–163.
Ray, W. A., Taylor, J. A., Lichtenstein, M. J. and Meador, K. G. (1992). The Nursing Home Behavior Problem Scale. Journal of Gerontology, 47, M9–16.
Rovner, B. W., German, P. S., Broadhead, J., Morriss, R. K. and Brant, L. J. (1990). The prevalence and management of dementia and other psychiatric disorders in nursing homes. International Psychogeriatrics, 2, 13–24.
Sandberg, O., Gustafson, Y., Brannstrom, B. and Bucht, G. (1998). Prevalence of dementia, delirium and psychiatric symptoms in various care settings for the elderly. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, 26, 56–62.
Shah, S., Vanclay, F. and Cooper, B. (1989). Improving the sensitivity of the Barthel Index for stroke rehabilitation. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 42, 703–709.
Sourial, R., McCusker, J., Cole, M. G. and Abrahamowicz, M. (2001). Agitation in demented patients in an acute care hospital: Prevalence, disruptiveness and staff burden. International Psychogeriatrics, 13, 183–197.
Voyer, P., Richard, S., Doucet, L. and Carmichael, P. (2009). Detecting delirium and subsyndromal delirium using different diagnostic criteria among demented long-term care residents. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 10, 181–188.
Zarit, S. H., Reever, K. E. and Bach-Peterson, J. (1980). Relatives of the impaired elderly: correlates of feelings of burden. Gerontologist, 20, 649–655.
Zuidema, S. U., Derksen, E., Verhey, F. R. and Koopmans, R. T. (2007). Prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in a large sample of Dutch nursing home patients with dementia. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 22, 632–638.