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Cognitive reserve and working memory in cognitive performance of adults with subjective cognitive complaints: longitudinal structural equation modeling

  • Cristina Lojo-Seoane (a1), David Facal (a1), Joan Guàrdia-Olmos (a2), Arturo X. Pereiro (a1), María Campos-Magdaleno (a1), Sabela C. Mallo (a1) and Onésimo Juncos-Rabadán (a1)...

Abstract

Objective:

To study the influence of cognitive reserve (CR) on cognitive performance of individuals with subjective cognitive complaints (SCCs) within a period of 36 months.

Design:

We used a general linear model repeated measures procedure to analyze the differences in performance between three assessments. We used a longitudinal structural equation modeling to analyze the relationship between CR and cognitive performance at baseline and at two follow-up assessments.

Setting:

Participants with SCCs were recruited and assessed in primary care health centers.

Participants:

A total of 212 participants older than 50 years with SCCs.

Measurements:

Cognitive reserve data were collected with an ad hoc questionnaire administered to the subjects in an interview. General cognitive performance (GCP), episodic memory (EM), and working memory (WM) have been evaluated. The Mini-Mental State Examination and the total score of Spanish version of the Cambridge Cognitive Examination evaluated the GCP. Episodic memory was assessed with the Spanish version of the California Verbal Learning. Working memory was evaluated by the counting span task and the listening span task.

Results:

The satisfactory fit of the proposed model confirmed the direct effects of CR on WM and GCP at baseline, as well as indirect effects on EM and WM at first and second follow-up. Indirect effects of CR on other cognitive constructs via WM were observed over time.

Conclusion:

The proposed model is useful for measuring the influence of CR on cognitive performance over time. Cognitive response acquired throughout life may influence cognitive performance in old age and prevent cognitive deterioration, thus increasing processing resources via WM.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence should be addressed to: Cristina Lojo-Seoane, Departamento de Psicoloxía Evolutiva e da Educación, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela. Rúa Xosé María Suárez Núñez, s/n; Campus Vida. 15782 Santiago de Compostela, España, Spain. Phone: + 34 600 942 412; Fax: + 34 881 813 901. Email: cristina.lojo@usc.es.

References

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Keywords

Cognitive reserve and working memory in cognitive performance of adults with subjective cognitive complaints: longitudinal structural equation modeling

  • Cristina Lojo-Seoane (a1), David Facal (a1), Joan Guàrdia-Olmos (a2), Arturo X. Pereiro (a1), María Campos-Magdaleno (a1), Sabela C. Mallo (a1) and Onésimo Juncos-Rabadán (a1)...

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