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Cognitive performance norms from the Korean genome and epidemiology study (KoGES)

  • Hyun Kim (a1) (a2) (a3) (a4), Rhoda Au (a2) (a3), Robert J. Thomas (a5), Chang-Ho Yun (a6), Seung Ku Lee (a4), Changsu Han (a7) and Chol Shin (a4) (a8)...



While normative data on neuropsychological performance provide baseline metrics for the assessment and diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and dementia, a lack of comparative normative data in non-Caucasian populations makes it difficult to conduct similar evaluations and studies in individuals from diverse backgrounds. The current paper aims to provide normative data on a range of cognitive measures in a Korean general population sample and investigate various demographic and health variables associated with cognitive performance in this representative population.


The study population was 1,528 stroke and dementia-free individuals who participated in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology study (KoGES) (mean age 60.43 ± 7.30, 52.42% female). All participants underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery that included verbal and visual memory, language, attention, and executive function measures. A health examination and a questionnaire-based interview were also administered.


The majority of cognitive test results were associated with age, education, and gender. In general, higher education and younger age was associated with better cognitive performance. Explained variance increased modestly in models that included measures of general health and depressive symptoms.


Normative data of cognitive performance in a community based Korean population are presented. These norms provide reference values in a non-Caucasian middle to older aged sample.


Corresponding author

Correspondence should be addressed to: Chol Shin, MD, PhD, FCCP, Korea University Ansan Hospital, #516, Gojan1-dong, Danwon-gu, Ansan, Kyeonggi-do, South Korea. Phone: +82-31-412-5603; Fax: +82-31-412-5604. Email:


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The current work was performed at the Institute of Human Genomic Study, Korea University Ansan Hospital.



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Cognitive performance norms from the Korean genome and epidemiology study (KoGES)

  • Hyun Kim (a1) (a2) (a3) (a4), Rhoda Au (a2) (a3), Robert J. Thomas (a5), Chang-Ho Yun (a6), Seung Ku Lee (a4), Changsu Han (a7) and Chol Shin (a4) (a8)...


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