Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

CERAD practice effects and attrition bias in a dementia prevention trial

  • Melissa Mathews (a1), Erin Abner (a1) (a2), Allison Caban-Holt (a1) (a3), Richard Kryscio (a1) (a2) and Frederick Schmitt (a1) (a3) (a4)...

Abstract

Background: The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) set of tests is frequently used for tracking cognition longitudinally in both clinical and research settings. Repeated cognitive assessments are an important component in measuring such changes; however, practice effects and attrition bias may obscure significant clinical change over time. The current study sought to examine the presence and magnitude of practice effects and the role of attrition bias in a sample of cognitively normal older men enrolled in a prevention trial.

Method: Participants were grouped according to whether they completed five years of follow-up (n = 182) or less (n = 126). Practice effects were examined in these participants as a whole (n = 308) and by group.

Results: Findings indicate that moderate practice effects exist in both groups on the CERAD T-score and that attrition bias likely does not play a contributing role in improved scores over time.

Conclusion: The current study provides additional evidence and support for previous findings that repeated cognitive assessment results in rising test scores in longitudinally collected data and demonstrates that these findings are unlikely to be due to attrition.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence should be addressed to: Frederick Schmitt, PhD, 303 Sanders-Brown Center on Aging, University of Kentucky, 800 S. Limestone Street, Lexington, KY 40536-023, USA. Phone: +1-859-218-5051; Fax: +1-859-323-1772. Email: fascom@uky.edu.

References

Hide All
Boekamp, J. R., Strauss, M. E. and Adams, N. (1995). Estimating premorbid intelligence in African-American and white elderly Veterans using the American version of the National Adult Reading Test. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 17, 645653.
Burkhart, C. S.et al. (2011). Evaluation of a summary score of cognitive performance for use in trials in perioperative and critical care. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 31, 451459.
Caban-Holt, A., Bottiggi, K. and Schmitt, F. A. (2005). Measuring treatment response in Alzheimer's disease clinical trials. Geriatrics, 60, Supplement, 38.
Caban-Holt, A.et al. (2006). Studying the effects of vitamin E and selenium for Alzheimer's disease prevention: the PREADViSE model. In Vellas, B., Fitten, L., Winblad, B., Feldman, H., Grundman, M., Giacobini, E. and Kurz, A. (eds.) Research and Practice in Alzheimer's Disese (pp. 124130). Paris, France: Serdi.
Calamia, M., Markon, K. and Tranel, D. (2012). Scoring higher the second time around: meta-analyses of practice effects in neuropsychological assessment. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 26, 543570.
Chandler, M. J.et al. (2005). A total score for the CERAD neuropsychological battery. Neurology, 65, 102106.
Chang, C. C. H., Yang, H. C., Tang, G. and Ganguli, M. (2009). Minimizing attrition bias: a longitudinal study of depressive symptoms in an elderly cohort. International Psychogeriatrics, 21, 869878.
Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 155159.
Cooper, D. B.et al. (2001). Effects of practice on category fluency in Alzheimer's disease. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 15, 125128.
Cooper, D. B., Lacritz, L. H., Weiner, M. F., Rosenberg, R. N. and Cullum, C. M. (2004). Category fluency in mild cognitive impairment – reduced effect of practice in test–retest conditions. Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders, 18, 120122.
Ferris, S. H.et al. (1997). A multicenter evaluation of new treatment efficacy instruments for Alzheimer's disease clinical trials: overview and general results. Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders, 11, S1S12.
Fillenbaum, G. G.et al. (2008). Consortium to establish a registry for Alzheimer's disease (CERAD): the first twenty years. Alzheimer's and Dementia, 4, 96109.
Galvin, J. E.et al. (2005). Predictors of preclinical Alzheimer's disease and dementia – a clinicopathologic study. Archives of Neurology, 62, 758765.
Hickman, S. E., Howieson, D. B., Dame, A., Sexton, G. and Kaye, J. (2000). Longitudinal analysis of the effects of the aging process on neuropsychological test performance in the healthy young-old and oldest-old. Developmental Neuropsychology, 17, 323337.
Jessen, F.et al. (2011). Prediction of dementia in primary care patients. PLoS One, 6, e16852. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016852.
Klein, E. A.et al. (2003). The selenium and vitamin E cancer prevention trial. World Journal of Urology, 21, 2127.
Kryscio, R. J., Mendiondo, M. S., Schmitt, F. A. and Markesbery, W. R. (2004). Designing a large prevention trial: statistical issues. Statistics in Medicine, 23, 285296.
Morris, J. C.et al. (1989). The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD). Part I. Clinical and neuropsychological assessment of Alzheimer's disease. Neurology, 39, 11591165.
Rosen, W. G., Mohs, R. C. and Davis, K. L. (1984). A new rating-scale for Alzheimer's disease. American Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 13561364.
Rosetti, H., Cullum, C., Hynan, L. and Lacritz, L. (2010). The CERAD neuropsychological battery total score and the progression of Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders, 24, 138142.
Stein, J.et al. (2012). The assessment of changes in cognitive functioning: age, education, and gender-specific reliable change indices for older adults tested on the CERAD-NP battery: results of the German study on ageing, cognition, and dementia in primary care patients (AgeCoDe). American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20, 8497.
Tierney, M. C., Yao, C., Kiss, A. and McDowell, I. (2005). Neuropsychological tests accurately predict incident Alzheimer's disease after 5 and 10 years. Neurology, 64, 18531859.
Welsh, K. A.et al. (1994). The Consortium-to-Establish-a-Registry-for-Alzheimers-Disease (CERAD). 5. A normative study of the neuropsychological battery. Neurology, 44, 609614.
Zehnder, A., Blasi, S., Berres, M., Spiegel, R. and Monsch, A. (2007). Lack of practice effects on neuropsychological tests as early cognitive markers of Alzheimer disease? American Journal of Alzheimers Disease and Other Dementias, 22, 416426.

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Mathews supplementary material 1
Mathews supplementary material 1

 Word (11 KB)
11 KB
WORD
Supplementary materials

Mathews supplementary material 2
Mathews supplementary material 2

 Word (10 KB)
10 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed