Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Cardiovascular health and cognitive function among Mexican older adults: cross-sectional results from the WHO Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health

  • Jaime Perales (a1), Ladson Hinton (a2), Jeffrey Burns (a1) and Eric D. Vidoni (a1)

Abstract

Objectives:

To assess the association between cardiovascular health and cognitive function among Mexican older adults.

Design:

Nationally representative cross-sectional survey.

Setting:

Households in Mexico.

Participants:

Individuals aged 50 years and older (n = 1,492) from the Mexico-SAGE project Wave 1.

Measurements:

A continuous and a categorical index of cardiovascular health was calculated based on exercise, smoking, body mass index, and blood pressure ranging from 0 to 4. Cognitive function was obtained by averaging the standardized scores (z scores) of five psychometric tests. Associations were conducted using linear regression.

Results:

The continuous index of cardiovascular health was not associated with cognitive function. Using the categorical index, participants with the best levels of cardiovascular (score of 4) health performed better on global cognitive function than groups with lower cardiovascular health (scores of 0, 0.41 SD; 1, 0.39 SD; and 2, 0.56 SD). The association was moderated by age, reaching significance only among those 50–64 years old.

Conclusions:

If longitudinal research confirms these findings, results would suggest that dementia-related policies in Mexico need to focus on achieving optimal levels of cardiovascular health, especially in midlife.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Cardiovascular health and cognitive function among Mexican older adults: cross-sectional results from the WHO Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Cardiovascular health and cognitive function among Mexican older adults: cross-sectional results from the WHO Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Cardiovascular health and cognitive function among Mexican older adults: cross-sectional results from the WHO Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence should be addressed to: Eric D. Vidoni, Department of Neurology, University of Kansas Alzheimer's Disease Center, MS6002, Fairway, Kansas 66205, USA. Phone: +1-913-588-5312. Email: evidoni@kumc.edu.

References

Hide All
Al Hazzouri, A. Z., Haan, M. N., Neuhaus, J. M., Pletcher, M., Peralta, C. A. and López, L. (2013). Cardiovascular risk score, cognitive decline, and dementia in older Mexican Americans: the role of sex and education. Journal of the American Heart Association, 2, e004978.
Baicker, K., Cutler, D. and Song, Z. (2010). Workplace wellness programs can generate savings. Health Affairs, 29, 304311.
Bherer, L., Erickson, K. I. and Liu-Ambrose, T. (2013). A review of the effects of physical activity and exercise on cognitive and brain functions in older adults. Journal of Aging Research, 2013. doi:10.1155/2013/657508.
Biessels, G. J., Staekenborg, S., Brunner, E., Brayne, C. and Scheltens, P. (2006). Risk of dementia in diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. The Lancet Neurology, 5, 6474.
Bonvecchio, A., Fernández-Gaxiola, A., Plazas, M., Kaufer-Horwitz, M., Pérez, A. and Rivera, J. (2015). Nutrition and physical activity guidelines for overweight and obesity in the Mexican population [Guías alimentarias y de actividad física en contexto de sobrepeso y obesidad en la población mexicana]. Documento de Postura. Academia Nacional de Medicina (ANM). Intersistemas, México.
Bull, F. C., Maslin, T. S. and Armstrong, T. (2009). Global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ): nine country reliability and validity study. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 6, 790804.
Caballero, A. E. (2005). Diabetes in the Hispanic or Latino population: genes, environment, culture, and more. Current Diabetes Reports, 5, 217225.
Cataldo, J. K., Prochaska, J. J. and Glantz, S. A. (2010). Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease: an analysis controlling for tobacco industry affiliation. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 19, 465480.
Crichton, G. E., Elias, M. F., Davey, A. and Alkerwi, A. A. (2014). Cardiovascular health and cognitive function: the Maine-Syracuse longitudinal study. PLoS One, 9, e89317.
Dong, C., Rundek, T., Wright, C. B., Anwar, Z., Elkind, M. S. and Sacco, R. L. (2012). Ideal cardiovascular health predicts lower risks of myocardial infarction, stroke, and vascular death across whites, blacks and Hispanics: the northern Manhattan study. Circulation, 125, 29752984. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.081083.
Escobedo, P. S. and Hollingworth, L. (2009). Annotations on the use of the Mexican norms for the WAIS-III. Applied Neuropsychology, 16, 223227.
Fitzpatrick, A. L. et al. (2009). Midlife and late-life obesity and the risk of dementia: cardiovascular health study. Archives of Neurology, 66, 336342.
Gardener, H. et al. (2016). Ideal cardiovascular health and cognitive aging in the Northern Manhattan study. Journal of the American Heart Association, 5, e002731.
Goel, M. S., Mccarthy, E. P., Phillips, R. S. and Wee, C. C. (2004). Obesity among US immigrant subgroups by duration of residence. JAMA, 292, 28602867.
Gonzalez-Barrera, A. and Lopez, M. H. (2013). A Demographic Portrait of Mexican-Origin Hispanics in the United States. Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center.
González, H. M. et al. (2016). Life's simple 7’s cardiovascular health metrics are associated with Hispanic/Latino neurocognitive function: HCHS/ SOL results. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 53, 955965.
Gorelick, P. B. et al. (2011). Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia. Stroke, 42, 26722713.
Hoos, T., Espinoza, N., Marshall, S. and Arredondo, E. M. (2012). Validity of the global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ) in adult Latinas. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 9, 698705.
IBM Corp. Released (2013). IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows. Version 22.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.
Instituto Nacional De Salud Pública (INSP) (2014). Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1: Mexico National Report. London, UK: Instituto Nacional De Salud Pública (INSP).
Kloppenborg, R. P., Van Den Berg, E., Kappelle, L. J. and Biessels, G. J. (2008). Diabetes and other vascular risk factors for dementia: which factor matters most? A systematic review. European Journal of Pharmacology, 585, 97108.
Kondo, K. K., Rossi, J. S., Schwartz, S. J., Zamboanga, B. L. and Scalf, C. D. (2016). Acculturation and cigarette smoking in Hispanic women: a meta-analysis. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, 15, 4672.
Kowal, P. et al. (2012). Data resource profile: the World Health Organization Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE). International Journal of Epidemiology, 41, 16391649.
Kulshreshtha, A. et al. (2013). Life's simple 7 and risk of incident stroke. Stroke, 44, 19091914.
Lloyd-Jones, D. M. et al. (2010). Defining and setting national goals for cardiovascular health promotion and disease reduction. Circulation, 121, 586613.
Markides, K. S. and Eschbach, K. (2005). Aging, migration, and mortality: current status of research on the Hispanic paradox. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 60, S68–S75.
Mejia-Arango, S. and Gutierrez, L. M. (2011). Prevalence and incidence rates of dementia and cognitive impairment no dementia in the Mexican population: data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Journal of Aging and Health, 23, 10501074.
Mejía-Arango, S., Miguel-Jaimes, A., Villa, A., Ruiz-Arregui, L. and Gutiérrez-Robledo, L. M. (2007). Cognitive impairment and associated factors in older adults in Mexico. Salud Pública de México, 49, S475S481.
Morris, J. C., Mohs, R., Rogers, H., Fillenbaum, G. and Heyman, A. (1988). Consortium to establish a registry for Alzheimer's disease (CERAD) clinical and neuropsychological assessment of Alzheimer's disease. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 24, 641652.
Mozaffarian, D. et al. (2012). Population approaches to improve diet, physical activity, and smoking habits: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 126, 15141563. doi:10.1161/CIR.0b013e318260a20b.
Olanrewaju, O., Clare, L., Barnes, L. and Brayne, C. (2015). A multimodal approach to dementia prevention: a report from the Cambridge Institute of Public Health. Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions, 1, 151156.
Ordúñez, P., Silva, L. C., Rodríguez, M. P. and Robles, S. (2001). Prevalence estimates for hypertension in Latin America and the Caribbean: are they useful for surveillance? Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, 10, 226231.
Ostrosky-Solís, F., Ardila, A. and Rosselli, M. (1999). NEUROPSI: a brief neuropsychological test battery in Spanish with norms by age and educational level. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 5, 413433.
Pearson, T. A. et al. (2013). American heart association guide for improving cardiovascular health at the community level, 2013 update. Circulation, 127, 1730–1753. doi:10.1161/CIR.0b013e31828f8a94.
Prince, M., Bryce, R., Albanese, E., Wimo, A., Ribeiro, W. and Ferri, C. P. (2013). The global prevalence of dementia: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Alzheimer's & Dementia, 9, 6375. e2.
Reis, J. P. et al. (2013). Cardiovascular health through young adulthood and cognitive functioning in midlife. Annals of Neurology, 73, 170179.
Reitz, C., Tang, M.-X., Manly, J., Mayeux, R. and Luchsinger, J. A. (2007). Hypertension and the risk of mild cognitive impairment. Archives of Neurology, 64, 17341740.
Secretaría de Salud (1999). Official Mexican Guidelines for the Prevention, Treatment and Control of Hypertension [Norma Oficial Mexicana, NOM-030-SSA2-1999, Para la Prevención, Tratamiento y Control de la Hipertensión Arterial]. Mexico City, Mexico: Secretaría de Salud.
Secretaría de Salud (2009). Official Mexican Guidelines for the Prevention, Treatment and Control of Addictions [Norma Oficial Mexicana, NOM-028-SSA2-2009, Para la Prevención, Tratamiento y Control de las Adicciones]. Mexico City, Mexico: Secretaría de Salud.
Shaw, J. E., Sicree, R. A. and Zimmet, P. Z. (2010). Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2010 and 2030. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 87, 414.
Silvia, M.-A. and Clemente, Z.-G. (2011). Diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for dementia in the Mexicana elder population. Revista de Neurologia, 53, 397.
Sosa, A. L. et al. (2009). Population normative data for the 10/66 Dementia Research Group cognitive test battery from Latin America, India and China: a cross-sectional survey. BMC Neurology, 9, 48.
Thacker, E. L. et al. (2014). The American Heart Association life's simple 7 and incident cognitive impairment: the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. Journal of the American Heart Association, 3, e000635.
Tulsky, D. and Zhu, J. (2003). Escala Wechsler de Inteligencia para Adultos-III. Mexico, DF: El Manual Moderno.
Unverzagt, F. et al. (2011). Vascular risk factors and cognitive impairment in a stroke-free cohort. Neurology, 77, 17291736.
Üstun, T., Chatterji, S., Mechbal, A. and Murray, C. (2005). Quality assurance in surveys: standards, guidelines and procedures. In Household Sample Surveys in Developing and Transition Countries (pp. 199230). New York, NY: United Nations.
Verghese, J., Lipton, R., Hall, C., Kuslansky, G. and Katz, M. (2003). Low blood pressure and the risk of dementia in very old individuals. Neurology, 61, 16671672.
Wechsler, D. (2001). Escala Wechsler de Inteligencia Para Adultos-III (WAIS-III). Mexico, DF: El Manual Moderno.
Wechsler, D., Coalson, D. L. and Raiford, S. E. (1997). WAIS-III: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
Whitmer, R. A., Sidney, S., Selby, J., Johnston, S. C. and Yaffe, K. (2005). Midlife cardiovascular risk factors and risk of dementia in late life. Neurology, 64, 277281.
World Health Organization (2012). Dementia: A Public Health Priority. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
World Health Organization (2015). Country Statistics and Global Health Estimates. Mexico: World Health Organization.
World Obesity Federation (2017). World Obesity: Obesity Prevalence Worldwide-Adults. Available at: http://www.worldobesity.org/data/map/overview-adults#country=CAN; last accessed 6 December 2017.
Yaffe, K., Haan, M., Blackwell, T., Cherkasova, E., Whitmer, R. A. and West, N. (2007). Metabolic syndrome and cognitive decline in elderly Latinos: findings from the Sacramento Area Latino study of aging study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 55, 758762.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed