Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Association between advanced glycation end-products and functional performance in Alzheimer's disease and mixed dementia

  • Hans Drenth (a1) (a2), Sytse U. Zuidema (a3), Wim P. Krijnen (a1), Ivan Bautmans (a4), Cees van der Schans (a1) (a5) (a6) and Hans Hobbelen (a1) (a3)...

Abstract

Background:

People with Alzheimer's disease (AD) experience, in addition to the progressive loss of cognitive functions, a decline in functional performance such as mobility impairment and disability in activities of daily living (ADL). Functional decline in dementia is mainly linked to the progressive brain pathology. Peripheral biomechanical changes by advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) have been suggested but have yet to be thoroughly studied.

Methods:

A multi-center, longitudinal, one-year follow-up cohort study was conducted in 144 people with early stage AD or mixed Alzheimer's/Vascular dementia. Linear mixed model analyses was used to study associations between AGE-levels (AGE reader) and mobility (Timed Up and Go), and ADL (Groningen Activity Restriction Scale and Barthel index), respectively.

Results:

A significant association between AGE levels and mobility (β = 3.57, 95%CI: 1.43–5.73) was revealed; however, no significant association between AGE levels and ADL was found. Over a one-year time span, mean AGE levels significantly increased, and mobility and ADL performance decreased. Change in AGE levels was not significantly correlated with change in mobility.

Conclusions:

This study indicates that high AGE levels could be a contributing factor to impaired mobility but lacks evidence for an association with ADL decline in people with early stage AD or mixed dementia. Future research is necessary on the reduction of functional decline in dementia regarding the effectiveness of interventions such as physical activity programs and dietary advice possibly in combination with pharmacologic strategies targeting AGE accumulation.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Association between advanced glycation end-products and functional performance in Alzheimer's disease and mixed dementia
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Association between advanced glycation end-products and functional performance in Alzheimer's disease and mixed dementia
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Association between advanced glycation end-products and functional performance in Alzheimer's disease and mixed dementia
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

Correspondence should be addressed to: Hans Drenth, Research Group Healthy Ageing, Allied Healthcare and Nursing, Hanze University of Applied Sciences, PO Box 3109, 9701 DC, Groningen, the Netherlands. Email: j.c.drenth@pl.hanze.nl.

References

Hide All
Ahmed, N. and Thornalley, P. J. (2007). Advanced glycation endproducts: what is their relevance to diabetic complications? Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 9, 233245.
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Andersen, C. K., Wittrup-Jensen, K. U., Lolk, A., Andersen, K. and Kragh-Sørensen, P. (2004). Ability to perform activities of daily living is the main factor affecting quality of life in patients with dementia. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 2, 52.
Avery, N. C. and Bailey, A. J. (2005). Enzymic and non-enzymic cross-linking mechanisms in relation to turnover of collagen: relevance to aging and exercise. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 15, 231240.
Bird, T. D. (1993). Alzheimer Disease Overview. In Pagon, R. A. et al. (eds.). Seattle, WA: GeneReviews [Internet].
Buchman, A. S. and Bennett, D. A. (2011). Loss of motor function in preclinical Alzheimer's disease. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 11, 665676.
Collin, C., Wade, D. T., Davies, S. and Horne, V. (1988). The Barthel ADL Index: a reliability study. International Disability Studies, 10, 6163.
Drenth, H., Zuidema, S., Krijnen, W., Bautmans, I., van der Schans, C. and Hobbelen, H. (2017). Advanced glycation end-products are associated with the presence and severity of paratonia in early stage Alzheimer's disease. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, in press.
Drenth, H., Zuidema, S., Bunt, S., Bautmans, I., van der Schans, C. and Hobbelen, H. (2016). The contribution of advanced glycation end product (AGE) accumulation to the decline in motor function. European Review of Aging and Physical Activity: Official Journal of the European Group for Research into Elderly and Physical Activity, 13, 3.
Farmer, S. E. and James, M. (2001). Contractures in orthopaedic and neurological conditions: a review of causes and treatment. Disability and Rehabilitation, 23, 549558.
Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E. and McHugh, P. R. (1975). “Mini-mental state”. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189198.
Giebel, C. M., Sutcliffe, C. and Challis, D. (2017). Hierarchical decline of the initiative and performance of complex activities of daily living in dementia. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 30, 96103.
Graham, J. E., Ostir, G. V., Fisher, S. R. and Ottenbacher, K. J. (2008). Assessing walking speed in clinical research: a systematic review. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 14, 552562.
Hobbelen, J. S. M., Koopmans, R.T., Verhey, F. R., Habraken, K. M. and de Bie, R. A. (2008). Diagnosing paratonia in the demented elderly: reliability and validity of the paratonia assessment instrument (PAI). International Psychogeriatrics/IPA, 20, 840852.
Kempen, G. I. J. M. and Doeglas, D. M. and Suurmeijer, Th. P. B. M. (1993). Het Meten Van Problemen met Zelfredzaamheid op Verzorgend en Huishoudelijk Gebied met de GARS: Een Handleiding. 1st edn., Groningen: Noordelijk Centrum voor Gezondheidsvraagstukken, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
Li, J., Liu, D., Sun, L., Lu, Y. and Zhang, Z. (2012). Advanced glycation end products and neurodegenerative diseases: mechanisms and perspective. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 317, 15.
Liu, G. and Liang, K. Y. (1997). Sample size calculations for studies with correlated observations. Biometrics, 53, 937947.
Magelhaes, P.M., Appell, H. J. and Duarte, J. A. (2008). Involvement of advanced glycation end products in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications: the protective role of regular physical activity. European Review of Aging and Physical Activity, 5, 1729.
Martyr, A. and Clare, L. (2012). Executive function and activities of daily living in Alzheimer's disease: a correlational meta-analysis. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 33, 189203.
Meerwaldt, R. et al. (2004). Simple non-invasive assessment of advanced glycation endproduct accumulation. Diabetologia, 47, 13241330.
Metzelthin, S. F. et al. (2010). The psychometric properties of three self-report screening instruments for identifying frail older people in the community. BMC Public Health, 10, 176.
Nenna, A., Spadaccio, C., Lusini, M., Ulianich, L., Chello, M. and Nappi, F. (2015). Basic and clinical research against advanced glycation end products (AGEs): new compounds to tackle cardiovascular disease and diabetic complications. Recent Advances in Cardiovascular Drug Discovery, 10, 1033.
Payne, G. W. (2006). Effect of inflammation on the aging microcirculation: impact on skeletal muscle blood flow control. Microcirculation, 13, 343352.
Puyvelde, K., Van, Mets, T., Njemini, R., Beyer, I. and Bautmans, I. (2014). Effect of advanced glycation end product intake on inflammation and aging: a systematic review. Nutrition Reviews, 72, 638650.
Rahmadi, A., Steiner, N. and Munch, G. (2011). Advanced glycation endproducts as gerontotoxins and biomarkers for carbonyl-based degenerative processes in Alzheimer's disease. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM/FESCC, 49, 385391.
Ramakers, I. H. G. B. et al. (2007). Symptoms of preclinical dementia in general practice up to five years before dementia diagnosis. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 24, 300306.
Reisberg, B., Ferris, S. H., de Leon, M. J. and Crook, T. (1982). The global deterioration scale for assessment of primary degenerative dementia. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 11361139.
Ries, J. D., Echternach, J. L., Nof, L. and Gagnon Blodgett, M. (2009). Test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change scores for the timed “up & go” test, the six-minute walk test, and gait speed in people with Alzheimer disease. Physical Therapy, 89, 569579.
Scherder, E., Eggermont, L., Visscher, C., Scheltens, P. and Swaab, D. (2011). Understanding higher level gait disturbances in mild dementia in order to improve rehabilitation: “last in-first out.” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 699714.
Sternberg, S. A., Wershof Schwartz, A., Karunananthan, S., Bergman, H. and Mark Clarfield, A. (2011). The identification of frailty: a systematic literature review. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 59, 21292138.
Whitson, H. E. et al. (2014). Serum carboxymethyl-lysine, disability, and frailty in older persons: the Cardiovascular Health Study. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 69, 710716.
World Health Organisation (2014). The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System with Defined Daily Doses (ATC/DDD). Available at: http://www.who.int/classifications/atcddd/en/ [Accessed September 1, 2014].

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed