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Agitation in patients with dementia: a systematic review of epidemiology and association with severity and course

  • Milena Anatchkova (a1), Anne Brooks (a1), Laura Swett (a1), Ann Hartry (a2), Ruth A. Duffy (a3), Ross A. Baker (a3), Lene Hammer-Helmich (a4) and Myrlene Sanon Aigbogun (a5)...

Abstract

Objectives:

More than 90% of individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) experience behavioral and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), such as agitation. However, little is known regarding the specific burden of agitation for Alzheimer’s patients.

Design:

A global systematic literature review was conducted in MEDLINE and Embase for studies of clinical, humanistic, and economic burden of agitation in AD/dementia published from 2006–2016. References of identified papers and related literature reviews were examined. Studies meeting predetermined inclusion criteria for burden of agitation/NPS were summarized.

Results:

Eighty papers met the inclusion criteria for burden of agitation in dementia. Wide ranges of agitation prevalence were reported, but few papers provided information on incidence. The association of agitation with AD severity was presented in multiple studies; a few suggested positive association of agitation with mortality.

Conclusions:

High prevalence of agitation is consistent with earlier reports, but several gaps in understanding of agitation in AD need further exploration.

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Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

Correspondence should be addressed to: Myrlene Sanon Aigbogun, MPH, Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development & Commercialization, Inc., 508 Carnegie Center, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA. Phone: +1.609.512.4456; Fax: +1.609.249.7342. Email: Myrlene.Sanon@otsuka-us.com.

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