Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5bf98f6d76-nn2qz Total loading time: 0.325 Render date: 2021-04-22T03:44:11.075Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Validation of the Brazilian Portuguese Version of Geriatric Anxiety Inventory – GAI-BR

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 June 2014

Patrícia Nitschke Massena
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Narahyana Bom de Araújo
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Nancy Pachana
Affiliation:
School of Psychology, University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia
Jerson Laks
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Analuiza Camozzato de Pádua
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Background:

The Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) is a recently developed scale aiming to evaluate symptoms of anxiety in later life. This 20-item scale uses dichotomous answers highlighting non-somatic anxiety complaints of elderly people. The present study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian Portuguese version GAI (GAI-BR) in a sample from community and outpatient psychogeriatric clinic.

Methods:

A mixed convenience sample of 72 subjects was recruited for answering the research protocol. The interview procedures were structured with questionnaires about sociodemographic data, clinical health status, anxiety, and depression previously validated instruments, Mini-Mental State Examination, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and GAI-BR. Twenty-two percent of the sample were interviewed twice for test–retest reliability. For internal consistency analyses, the Cronbach's α test was applied. The Spearman correlation test was applied to evaluate the test–retest GAI-BR reliability. A ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve study was made to estimate the GAI-BR area under curve, cut-off points, sensitivity, and specificity for the Generalized Anxiety Disorder diagnosis.

Results:

The GAI-BR version showed high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.91) and strong and significant test–retest reliability (ρ = 0.85, p < 0.001). It also showed moderate and significant correlation with the Beck Anxiety Inventory (ρ = 0.68, p < 0.001) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (ρ = 0.61, p < 0.001) showing evidence of concurrent validation. The cut-off point of 13 estimated by ROC curve analyses showed sensitivity of 83.3% and specificity of 84.6% to detect Generalized Anxiety Disorder (DSM-IV).

Conclusion:

GAI-BR has demonstrated very good psychometric properties and can be a reliable instrument to measure anxiety in Brazilian elderly people.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © International Psychogeriatric Association 2014 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Almeida, O. P. and Almeida, S. A. (1999). Confiabilidade da Versão Brasileira da Escala de Depressão em Geriatria (GDS): versão reduzida. Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria, 57, 421427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Amorim, P. (2000). Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI): Validação de entrevista breve para diagnóstico de transtornos mentais. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 22, 106111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beck, A. T., Epstein, N., Brown, G. and Steer, R. A. (1988). An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: psychometric properties. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 893900.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bertolucci, P. H., Brucki, S. M., Campacci, S. R. and Juliano, Y. (1994). The Mini-Mental State Examination in a general population: impact of educational status. Arquivos de Neuropsiquiatria, 52, 17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. (2010). Brasília, Brazil. Available at: http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/populacao/censo2010/resultados_gerais_amostra_areas_ponderacao/default.shtm; last accessed 24 March 2014.Google Scholar
Brazilian Association of Research Companies Socioeconomic Survey. (2010). Brasília, Brazil. Available at: http://www.abep.org/novo/Content.aspx?ContentID=301; last accessed 24 March 2014.Google Scholar
Bryant, C., Jackson, H. and Ames, D. (2009). Depression and anxiety in medically unwell older adults: prevalence and short-term course. International Psychogeriatrics, 21, 754763.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Byers, A. L., Yaffe, K., Covisnky, K. E., Friedman, M. B. and Bruce, M. L. (2010). High occurrence of mood and anxiety disorders among older adults. The National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67, 489496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Byrne, G. J., Pachana, N. A., Goncalves, D. C., Arnold, E., King, R. and Khoo, S. K. (2010). Psychometric properties and health correlates of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory in Australian community-residing older women. Aging and Mental Health, 14, 247254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Camozzato, A., Hidalgo, M. P., Souza, S. and Chaves, M. L. (2007). Association among items from the self-report version of the Hamilton Depression Scale (Carroll Rating Scale) and respondents’ sex. Psychological Reports, 101, 291301.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cunha, J. A. (2001). Manual da versão em português das Escalas Beck. São Paulo: Casa do Psicólogo.Google Scholar
Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E. and McHugh, P. R. (1975). Mini-mental state. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gloster, A. T. et al. (2008). Psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 in older primary care patients. Journal of Affective Disorders, 110, 248259.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gorenstein, C. and Andrade, L. (1996). Validation of a Portuguese version of the Beck Depression Inventory and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory in Brazilian subjects. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 29, 453460.Google ScholarPubMed
Kumar, R. and Indrayan, A. (2011). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve for medical researchers. Indian Pediatrics, 4, 277287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lowe, P. A. and Reynolds, C. R. (2006). Exploratory analyses of the latent structure of anxiety among older adults. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 60, 100116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Márquez-González, M., Losada, A., Fernández-Fernández, V. and Pachana, N. A. (2012). Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory. International Psychogeriatrics, 24, 137144. DOI: 10.1017/S1041610211001505.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Martiny, C., Silva, A. C. O., Nardi, A. E. and Pachana, N. A. (2011). Tradução e adaptação transcultural da versão brasileira do Inventário de Ansiedade Geriátrica (GAI). Revista de Psiquiatria Clínica, 38, 812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meyer, T., Miller, M., Metzger, R. and Borkovec, T. D. (1990). Development and validation of the Penn State Worry Scale. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 28, 487495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morin, C. M., Landreville, P., Colecchi, C., McDonald, K., Stone, J. and Ling, W. (1999). The Beck Anxiety Inventory: psychometric properties with older adults. Journal of Clinical Geropsychology, 5, 1929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pachana, N. A., Byrne, G. J., Siddle, H., Koloski, N., Harley, E. and Arnold, E. (2007). Development and validation of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory. International Psychogeriatrics, 19, 103114. DOI: 10.1017/S1041610206003504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pachana, N. A. and Byrne, G. J. (2012). The Geriatric Anxiety Inventory: international use and future directions. Australian Psychologist, 47, 3338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ribeiro, O., Paúl, C., Simões, M. R. and Firmino, H. (2011). Portuguese version of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory: transcultural adaptation and psychometric validation. Aging and Mental Health, 15, 742750.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Segal, D. I., June, A., Payne, M., Coolidge, F. L. and Yochim, B. (2010). Development and initial validation of a self-report assessment tool for anxiety among older adults: the Geriatric Anxiety Scale. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24, 709714. DOI: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.05.002.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sheehan, D. V. et al. (1998). The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): the development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 59, 2233.Google Scholar
Sinoff, G., Ore, L., Zlotogorsky, D. and Tamir, A. (1999). Short Anxiety Screening Test – a brief instrument for detecting anxiety in the elderly. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 14, 10621071.3.0.CO;2-Q>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. and Lushene, R. E. (1970). Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
Wolitzky-Taylor, K. B., Castriotta, N., Lenze, E. J., Stanley, M. A. and Craske, M. G. (2010). Anxiety disorders in older adults: a comprehensive review. Depression and Anxiety, 27, 190211.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yesavage, J. A. et al. (1983). Development and validation of a Geriatric Depression Screening Scale: a preliminary report. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 17, 3749.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 33
Total number of PDF views: 101 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 22nd April 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Validation of the Brazilian Portuguese Version of Geriatric Anxiety Inventory – GAI-BR
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Validation of the Brazilian Portuguese Version of Geriatric Anxiety Inventory – GAI-BR
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Validation of the Brazilian Portuguese Version of Geriatric Anxiety Inventory – GAI-BR
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *