Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The prevalence and predictors of anxiety and depression in near-centenarians and centenarians: a systematic review

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 July 2019

Adrian Cheng
Affiliation:
Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing, School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia Dementia Centre for Research Collaboration − Assessment and Better Care, School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
Yvonne Leung
Affiliation:
Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing, School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
Fleur Harrison
Affiliation:
Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing, School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia Dementia Centre for Research Collaboration − Assessment and Better Care, School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
Henry Brodaty
Affiliation:
Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing, School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia Dementia Centre for Research Collaboration − Assessment and Better Care, School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia Academic Department for Old Age Psychiatry, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, Australia
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Background:

Current research on the psychological health of near-centenarians (95−99 years old) and centenarians remains limited. Existing studies have mainly characterized their physical, cognitive, and social health. Results on the anxiety and depression of near-centenarians and centenarians (more than 95 years old) have been mixed with some studies, finding higher rates of anxiety and depression among those older than 95 years and others reporting no difference in rates compared with younger age groups. This study aims to synthesize the existing literature on the prevalence and predictors of anxiety and depression in near-centenarians and centenarians.

Method:

A systematic review was conducted using Ovid Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, SCOPUS, and the Cochrane database. Common and conflicting findings among the literature were examined.

Results:

Thirty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Six studies examined the prevalence and predictors of anxiety, and 37 studies investigated the prevalence and predictors of depression. Five studies examined both anxiety and depression in the same sample. Prevalence data on anxiety and depression varied significantly, as did comparisons with rates in younger populations. Findings on predictors of anxiety and depression were contradictory.

Conclusion:

There is a large degree of heterogeneity among studies of centenarians’ psychological status. Findings conflict on the prevalence and predictors of anxiety and depression and rates compared with younger age groups. Variation in findings may result from the different inclusion criteria, sampling methods, and measurement tools. Better harmonization of centenarian study methodologies may improve consistency of findings to aid in developing clinical interventions.

Type
Review Article
Copyright
© International Psychogeriatric Association 2019 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Abbasowa, L. and Heegaard, N. H. H. (2014). A systematic review of amyloid-β peptides as putative mediators of the association between affective disorders and Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Affective Disorders, 168, 167183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ailshire, J. A., Beltran-Sanchez, H. and Crimmins, E. M. (2011). Social characteristics and health status of exceptionally long-lived Americans in the Health and Retirement Study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 59, 22412248.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Australian Bureau of Statistics (2015). Population by age and sex, Australia, states and territories. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics.Google Scholar
Balsamo, M., Cataldi, F., Carlucci, L., Padulo, C. and Fairfield, B. (2018). Assessment of late-life depression via self-report measures: a review. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 13, 20212044.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bergdahl, E., Allard, P., Lundman, B. and Gustafson, Y. (2007). Depression in the oldest old in urban and rural municipalities. Aging & Mental Health, 11, 570578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bergdahl, E. et al. (2005). Depression among the oldest old: the Umea 85+ study. International Psychogeriatrics, 17, 557575.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brodaty, H. et al. (2016). ICC-dementia (International Centenarian Consortium − dementia): an international consortium to determine the prevalence and incidence of dementia in centenarians across diverse ethnoracial and sociocultural groups. BMC Neurology, 16, 52.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bryant, C., Jackson, H. and Ames, D. (2008). The prevalence of anxiety in older adults: methodological issues and a review of the literature. Journal of Affective Disorders, 109, 233250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cheng, A., Leung, Y., Crawford, J., Harrison, F., Sachdev, P. and Brodaty, H. (2019). The psychological health of 207 near-centenarians (95-99) and centenarians from the Sydney Centenarian Study. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. doi: 10.1177/0004867419848831 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cheung, K. S.-L. and Lau, B. H.-P. (2016). Successful aging among Chinese near-centenarians and centenarians in Hong Kong: a multidimensional and interdisciplinary approach. Aging & Mental Health, 20, 13141326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Christensen, K. et al. (2013). Physical and cognitive functioning of people older than 90 years: a comparison of two Danish cohorts born 10 years apart. Lancet, 382, 15071513.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cohen-Mansfield, J. et al. (2013). The old, old-old, and the oldest old: continuation or distinct categories? An examination of the relationship between age and changes in health, function, and wellbeing. International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 77, 3757.Google ScholarPubMed
Davey, A. et al. (2013). Profiles of cognitive functioning in a population-based sample of centenarians using factor mixture analysis. Experimental Aging Research, 39, 125144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dello Buono, M., Urciuoli, O. and De Leo, D. (1998). Quality of life and longevity: a study of centenarians. Age & Ageing, 27, 207216.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Djernes, J. K. (2006). Prevalence and predictors of depression in populations of elderly: a review. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 113, 372387.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Evert, J., Lawler, E., Bogan, H. and Perls, T. (2003). Morbidity profiles of centenarians: survivors, delayers, and escapers. Journals of Gerontology. Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 58, 232237.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fässberg, M. M., Östling, S., Börjesson-Hanson, A., Skoog, I. and Wærn, M. (2013). Suicidal feelings in the twilight of life: a cross-sectional population-based study of 97-year-olds. BMJ Open, 3, p.e002260. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002260 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Forsell, Y., Jorm, A. F., von Strauss, E. and Winblad, B. (1995). Prevalence and correlates of depression in a population of nonagenarians. British Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 6164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Garasky, S., Martin, P., Margrett, J. A. and Cho, J. (2012). Understanding perceptions of economic status among centenarians. International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 75, 365382.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hartvigsen, J. and Christensen, K. (2008). Pain in the back and neck are with us until the end: a nationwide interview-based survey of Danish 100-year-olds. Spine, 33, 909913.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Herzog, R., Alvarez-Pasquin, M. J., Diaz, C., Del Barrio, J. L., Estrada, J. M. and Gil, A. (2013). Are healthcare workers’ intentions to vaccinate related to their knowledge, beliefs and attitudes? A systematic review. BMC public health, 13, 154.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jang, Y., Poon, L. W. and Martin, P. (2004). Individual differences in the effects of disease and disability on depressive symptoms: the role of age and subjective health. International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 59, 125137.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johnson, E. J. et al. (2013). Relationship between serum and brain carotenoids, alpha-tocopherol, and retinol concentrations and cognitive performance in the oldest old from the georgia centenarian study. Journal of Aging Research. doi: 10.1155/2013/951786 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jopp, D. S. et al. (2016a). Challenges experienced at age 100: findings from the Fordham Centenarian Study. Journal of Aging & Social Policy, 28, 187207.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jopp, D. S., Park, M. K., Lehrfeld, J. and Paggi, M. E. (2016b). Physical, cognitive, social and mental health in near-centenarians and centenarians living in New York City: findings from the Fordham Centenarian Study. BMC Geriatrics, 16, 1.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kato, K., Zweig, R., Schechter, C. B., Barzilai, N. and Atzmon, G. (2016). Positive attitude toward life, emotional expression, self-rated health, and depressive symptoms among centenarians and near-centenarians. Aging & Mental Health, 20, 930939.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kiljunen, M., Sulkava, R., Niinisto, L., Polvikoski, T., Verkkoniemi, A. and Halonen, P. (1997). Depression measured by the Zung depression status inventory is very rare in a Finnish population aged 85 years and over. International Psychogeriatrics, 9, 359368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lau, B. H., Kwan, J. S., Cheung, K. S. and Martin, P. (2016). Depression moderates the frailty-subjective health link among Chinese near centenarians and centenarians. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 24, 753761.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leelakanok, N. and D’Cunha, R. R. (2018). Association between polypharmacy and dementia – a systematic review and meta-analysis. Aging & Mental Health, 110.Google Scholar
Margrett, J. et al. (2010). Depression among centenarians and the oldest old: contributions of cognition and personality. Gerontology, 56, 9399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martin, P., da Rosa, G., Margrett, J. A., Garasky, S. and Franke, W. (2012). Stability and change in affect among centenarians. International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 75, 337349.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meyer, J. (2012). Centenarians: 2010. In U.S. Census Bureau (Ed.), 2010 Census Special Reports. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
Moher, D. et al. (2015). Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement. Systematic Reviews, 4, 1.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nyqvist, F., Cattan, M., Conradsson, M., Nasman, M. and Gustafsson, Y. (2017). Prevalence of loneliness over ten years among the oldest old. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 45, 411418.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
O’Connor, K., Coon, D. W., Malek-Ahmadi, M., Dugger, B. N., Schofield, S. and Nieri, W. (2016). Description and cohort characterization of the Longevity Study: learning from our elders. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 28, 863869.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Oseland, L. M., Bishop, A. J., Gallus, K. L. and Randall, G. (2016). Early and late life exposure to trauma and biopsychosocial well-being in centenarians. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 21, 433443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Overdorp, E. J., Kessels, R. P. C., Claassen, J. A. and Oosterman, J. M. (2016). The combined effect of neuropsychological and neuropathological deficits on instrumental activities of daily living in older adults: a systematic review. Neuropsychology review, 26, 92106.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pedro, V. C., Arturo, R. H., Alejandro, P. M. and Oscar, R. C. (2017). Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of centenarians in Mexico City. BioMed Research International,2017 (no pagination).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Poon, L. W., Martin, P., Clayton, G. M., Messner, S., Noble, C. A. and Johnson, M. A. (1992). The influences of cognitive resources on adaptation and old age. International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 34, 3146.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reichstadt, J., Depp, C. A., Palinkas, L. A., Folsom, D. P. and Jeste, D. V. (2007). Building blocks of successful aging: a focus group study of older adults’ perceived contributors to successful aging. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15, 194201.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ribeiro, O., Duarte, N., Teixeira, L. and Paul, C. (2018). Frailty and depression in centenarians. International Psychogeriatrics, 30, 115124.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ribeiro, O., Paúl, C., Simões, M. R. and Firmino, H. (2011). Portuguese version of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory: transcultural adaptation and psychometric validation. Aging & Mental Health, 15, 742748.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ribeiro, O., Teixeira, L., Araujo, L., Afonso, R. M. and Pachana, N. (2015). Predictors of anxiety in centenarians: health, economic factors, and loneliness. International Psychogeriatrics, 27, 11671176.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Richmond, R. L., Law, J. and Kay-Lambkin, F. (2011). Physical, mental, and cognitive function in a convenience sample of centenarians in Australia. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 59, 10801086.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Richmond, R. L., Law, J. and KayLambkin, F. (2012). Morbidity profiles and lifetime health of Australian centenarians. Australasian Journal on Ageing, 31, 227232.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sachdev, P. S. et al. (2013). The Sydney Centenarian Study: methodology and profile of centenarians and near-centenarians. International Psychogeriatrics, 25, 9931005.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scheetz, L. T., Martin, P. and Poon, L. W. (2012). Do centenarians have higher levels of depression? Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 60, 238242.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Selim, A. J. et al. (2005). Comprehensive health status assessment of centenarians: results from the 1999 large health survey of veteran enrollees. Journals of Gerontology Series A-Biological Sciences & Medical Sciences, 60, 515519.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Strawbridge, R., Young, A. H. and Cleare, A. J. (2017). Biomarkers for depression: recent insights, current challenges and future prospects. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment, 13, 12451262.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tafaro, L. et al. (2002). Depression and aging: a survival study on centenarians. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 35, 371376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tedone, E. et al. (2014). Leukocyte telomere length and prevalence of age-related diseases in semisupercentenarians, centenarians and centenarians’ offspring. Experimental Gerontology, 58, 9095.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Teixeira, L., Araujo, L., Jopp, D. and Ribeiro, O. (2017). Centenarians in Europe. Maturitas, 104, 9095.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Toyoshima, A., Martin, P., Sato, S. and Poon, L. W. (2018). The relationship between vision impairment and well-being among centenarians: findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 33, 414422.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2015). World population prospects: The 2015 revision. New York: UN.Google Scholar
Vallerand, R. J., O’Connor, B. P. and Blais, M. R. (1989). Life satisfaction of elderly individuals in regular community housing, in low-cost community housing, and high and low self-determination nursing homes. International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 28, 277283.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
von Heideken Wagert, P. et al. (2005). Morale in the oldest old: the Umea 85+ study. Age & Ageing, 34, 249255.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
von Heideken Wagert, P. et al. (2006). Health status in the oldest old. Age and sex differences in the Umea 85+ study. Aging-Clinical & Experimental Research, 18, 116126.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yang, P.-S. (2013). Surviving social support: care challenges facing Taiwanese centenarians. International Journal of Social Welfare, 22, 396405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Cheng et al. supplementary material

Cheng et al. supplementary material 1

File 20 KB

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 70
Total number of PDF views: 301 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 29th July 2019 - 20th January 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Hostname: page-component-76cb886bbf-86jzp Total loading time: 0.432 Render date: 2021-01-20T17:37:30.837Z Query parameters: { "hasAccess": "0", "openAccess": "0", "isLogged": "0", "lang": "en" } Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false }

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

The prevalence and predictors of anxiety and depression in near-centenarians and centenarians: a systematic review
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

The prevalence and predictors of anxiety and depression in near-centenarians and centenarians: a systematic review
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

The prevalence and predictors of anxiety and depression in near-centenarians and centenarians: a systematic review
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *