Hostname: page-component-8448b6f56d-m8qmq Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-04-23T14:37:15.625Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Large intracranial volume accelerates conversion to dementia in males and APOE4 non-carriers with mild cognitive impairment

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 December 2015

Hoyoung An
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea
Sang Joon Son
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Ajou University Hospital, Ajou University, School of Medicine, Suwon, South Korea
Sooyun Cho
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea Laboratory of Clinical Neuroscience and Development, Graduate School of Medical Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon, South Korea
Eun Young Cho
Affiliation:
Department of Biostatistics, Korea University Graduate School, Seoul, South Korea
Booyeol Choi
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea
Seong Yoon Kim*
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea
*
Correspondence should be addressed to: Seong Yoon Kim, Department of Psychiatry, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, 88 Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736, South Korea. Phone: +82-2-3010-3410; Fax: +82-2-485-8381. Email: sykim@amc.seoul.kr.

Abstract

Background:

It is unclear how brain reserve interacts with gender and apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) genotype, and how this influences the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The association between intracranial volume (ICV) and progression to AD in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and differences according to gender and APOE4 genotype, was investigated.

Methods:

Data from subjects initially diagnosed with MCI and at least two visits were downloaded from the ADNI database. Those who progressed to AD were defined as converters. The longitudinal influence of ICV was determined by survival analysis. The time of conversion from MCI to AD was set as a fiducial point, as all converters would be at a similar disease stage then, and longitudinal trajectories of brain atrophy and cognitive decline around that point were compared using linear mixed models.

Results:

Large ICV increased the risk of conversion to AD in males (HR: 4.24, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17–15.40) and APOE4 non-carriers (HR: 10.00, 95% CI: 1.34–74.53), but not in females or APOE4 carriers. Cognitive decline and brain atrophy progressed at a faster rate in males with large ICV than in those with small ICV during the two years before and after the time of conversion.

Conclusions:

Large ICV increased the risk of conversion to AD in males and APOE4 non-carriers with MCI. This may be due to its influence on disease trajectory, which shortens the duration of the MCI stage. A longitudinal model of progression trajectory is proposed.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © International Psychogeriatric Association 2015 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Amieva, H. et al. (2014). Compensatory mechanisms in higher-educated subjects with Alzheimer's disease: a study of 20 years of cognitive decline. Brain, 137, 11671175. doi: 10.1093/brain/awu035.Google Scholar
Edland, S. D. et al. (2002). Total intracranial volume: normative values and lack of association with Alzheimer's disease. Neurology, 59, 272274.Google Scholar
Farrer, L. A. et al. (1997). Effects of age, sex, and ethnicity on the association between apolipoprotein E genotype and Alzheimer disease. A meta-analysis. APOE and Alzheimer disease meta analysis consortium. JAMA, 278, 13491356.Google Scholar
Garibotto, V., Borroni, B., Sorbi, S., Cappa, S. F., Padovani, A. and Perani, D. (2012). Education and occupation provide reserve in both ApoE epsilon4 carrier and noncarrier patients with probable Alzheimer's disease. Neurological Sciences, 33, 10371042. doi: 10.1007/s10072-011-0889-5.Google Scholar
Graves, A. B., Mortimer, J. A., Larson, E. B., Wenzlow, A., Bowen, J. D. and McCormick, W. C. (1996). Head circumference as a measure of cognitive reserve. Association with severity of impairment in Alzheimer's disease. British Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 8692.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Guo, L. H., Alexopoulos, P., Wagenpfeil, S., Kurz, A. and Perneczky, R. (2013). Brain size and the compensation of Alzheimer's disease symptoms: a longitudinal cohort study. Alzheimers Dement, 9, 580586. doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2012.10.002.Google Scholar
Guzman, V. A. et al. (2013). White matter hyperintensities and amyloid are independently associated with entorhinal cortex volume among individuals with mild cognitive impairment. Alzheimers Dement, 9, S124S131. doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2012.11.009.Google Scholar
Hall, C. B., Derby, C., LeValley, A., Katz, M. J., Verghese, J. and Lipton, R. B. (2007). Education delays accelerated decline on a memory test in persons who develop dementia. Neurology, 69, 16571664. doi: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000278163.82636.30.Google Scholar
Hartig, M. et al. (2014). UCSF FreeSurfer Methods, available at http://adni.loni.usc.edu/.Google Scholar
Jack, C. R., Jr. et al. (2015). Magnetic resonance imaging in Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative 2. Alzheimers Dement, 11, 740756. doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2015.05.002.Google Scholar
Jenkins, R., Fox, N. C., Rossor, A. M., Harvey, R. J. and Rossor, M. N. (2000). Intracranial volume and Alzheimer disease: evidence against the cerebral reserve hypothesis. Arch Neurol, 57, 220224.Google Scholar
Kang, J. H. et al. (2015). The Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative 2 biomarker core: a review of progress and plans. Alzheimers Dement, 11, 772791. doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2015.05.003.Google Scholar
Liu, Y. et al. (2012). Education increases reserve against Alzheimer's disease–evidence from structural MRI analysis. Neuroradiology, 54, 929938. doi: 10.1007/s00234-012-1005-0.Google Scholar
Mielke, M. M., Vemuri, P. and Rocca, W. A. (2014). Clinical epidemiology of Alzheimer's disease: assessing sex and gender differences. Clinical Epidemiology, 6, 3748. doi: 10.2147/CLEP.S37929.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Osone, A., Arai, R., Hakamada, R. and Shimoda, K. (2014). Impact of cognitive reserve on the progression of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease in Japan. Geriatrics & Gerontology International. doi: 10.1111/ggi.12292.Google Scholar
Perneczky, R., Alexopoulos, P., Wagenpfeil, S., Bickel, H. and Kurz, A. (2012). Head circumference, apolipoprotein E genotype and cognition in the Bavarian school sisters study. European Psychiatry, 27, 219222. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2011.01.008.Google Scholar
Perneczky, R. et al. (2010). Head circumference, atrophy, and cognition: implications for brain reserve in Alzheimer disease. Neurology, 75, 137142. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181e7ca97.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pfeffer, R. I., Kurosaki, T. T., Harrah, C. H., Jr., Chance, J. M. and Filos, S. (1982). Measurement of functional activities in older adults in the community. The Journal of Gerontology, 37, 323329.Google Scholar
Reuter, M. and Fischl, B. (2011). Avoiding asymmetry-induced bias in longitudinal image processing. Neuroimage, 57, 1921. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.02.076.Google Scholar
Reuter, M., Rosas, H. D. and Fischl, B. (2010). Highly accurate inverse consistent registration: a robust approach. Neuroimage, 53, 11811196. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.07.020.Google Scholar
Rosen, W. G., Mohs, R. C. and Davis, K. L. (1984). A new rating scale for Alzheimer's disease. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 13561364.Google Scholar
Schofield, P. W., Logroscino, G., Andrews, H. F., Albert, S. and Stern, Y. (1997). An association between head circumference and Alzheimer's disease in a population-based study of aging and dementia. Neurology, 49, 3037.Google Scholar
Schuff, N. et al. (2009). MRI of hippocampal volume loss in early Alzheimer's disease in relation to ApoE genotype and biomarkers. Brain, 132, 10671077. doi: 10.1093/brain/awp007.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shaw, L. M. and Trojanowski, J. Q. (2010). ADNI GO and ADNI 2: first batch analyses of CSF biomarkers. Available at http://adni.loni.usc.edu/; last assessed September 2015.Google Scholar
Skoog, I., Olesen, P. J., Blennow, K., Palmertz, B., Johnson, S. C. and Bigler, E. D. (2012). Head size may modify the impact of white matter lesions on dementia. Neurobiology of Aging, 33, 11861193. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2011.01.011.Google Scholar
Stern, Y. (2009). Cognitive reserve. Neuropsychologia, 47, 20152028. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2009.03. 004.Google Scholar
Tate, D. F. et al. (2011). Intracranial volume and dementia: some evidence in support of the cerebral reserve hypothesis. Brain Research, 1385, 151162. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2010.12.038.Google Scholar
Weiner, M. W. et al. (2015a). Impact of the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative, 2004 to 2014. Alzheimers & Dementia, 11, 865884. doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2015.04.005.Google Scholar
Weiner, M. W. et al. (2015b). 2014 Update of the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative: a review of papers published since its inception. Alzheimers & Dementia, 11, e1120. doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2014.11.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wolf, H., Julin, P., Gertz, H. J., Winblad, B. and Wahlund, L. O. (2004). Intracranial volume in mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia: evidence for brain reserve? International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19, 9951007. doi: 10.1002/gps.1205.Google Scholar
Wolf, H., Kruggel, F., Hensel, A., Wahlund, L. O., Arendt, T. and Gertz, H. J. (2003). The relationship between head size and intracranial volume in elderly subjects. Brain Research, 973, 7480.Google Scholar
Supplementary material: File

An supplementary material S1

Supplementary Table 1 Supplementary Figure 1

Download An supplementary material S1(File)
File 6.8 MB