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Lacunar stroke, deep white matter disease and depression: a meta-analysis

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 April 2014

Peter Egeto
Affiliation:
Keenan Research Centre of the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael's Hospital, 30 Bond Street, Toronto, Canada
Corinne E. Fischer
Affiliation:
Keenan Research Centre of the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael's Hospital, 30 Bond Street, Toronto, Canada Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 27 King's College Circle, Toronto, Canada
Zahinoor Ismail
Affiliation:
Departments of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Canada Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Geriatric Mental Health Program, Toronto, Canada
Eric E. Smith
Affiliation:
Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Canada Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Radiology and Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Canada
Tom A. Schweizer
Affiliation:
Keenan Research Centre of the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael's Hospital, 30 Bond Street, Toronto, Canada Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 27 King's College Circle, Toronto, Canada Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 27 King's College Circle, Toronto, Canada
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Background:

Lacunar stroke is a small (<2 cm) infarction that accounts for approximately 20% of all strokes. While a third of all stroke patients experience depressive symptoms, the prevalence of depression in the lacunar stroke patient population is unclear. This meta-analysis aimed to synthesize the evidence on the effect of lacunar stroke and deep white matter disease on depressive symptoms.

Methods:

A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted, resulting in the inclusion of 12 studies. Analyses were performed on the effects of lacunar stroke, volume and location of lacunes on depression prevalence, and the effect on depression severity. The effects estimates were calculated in random-effects models.

Results:

None of the analyses produced statistically significant results. Lacunar stroke patients had a non-significantly higher prevalence of depression compared to patients with non-lacunar cerebrovascular diseases (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 0.88–2.43, p = 0.15). Neither thalamic (OR = 1.37 (0.85–2.20), p = 0.19), deep white matter (RR = 1.16 (0.85–1.57), p = 0.35), multiple lacunes (OR = 1.34 (0.81–2.22), p = 0.25), or the volume of lacunes (MD = −4.71 (−351.59–342.18), p = 0.98) had an effect on depression prevalence. Lastly, lacunar stroke did not influence depressive symptom severity (MD = 0.96 (−1.57–3.48), p = 0.46).

Conclusions:

The pooled group of patients with lacunar stroke and deep white matter disease appear to have a similar prevalence of depression compared to those with other types of cerebrovascular diseases. However, the small number of studies, heterogeneous comparison groups, and high statistical heterogeneity between studies posed an obstacle to the meta-analysis. To determine appropriate screening and treatment approaches, future research will need to separate lacunar stroke and deep white matter disease patients, and include larger sample sizes and healthy control groups to determine their distinct contributions to depression.

Type
Review Article
Copyright
Copyright © International Psychogeriatric Association 2014 

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