Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-6c8bd87754-lkb8j Total loading time: 0.172 Render date: 2022-01-18T14:26:33.589Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Higher education affects accelerated cortical thinning in Alzheimer's disease: a 5-year preliminary longitudinal study

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  16 September 2014

Hanna Cho
Affiliation:
Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea Department of Neurology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
Seun Jeon
Affiliation:
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea
Changsoo Kim
Affiliation:
Department of Preventive Medicine and the Institute for Environmental Research
Byoung Seok Ye
Affiliation:
Department of Neurology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
Geon Ha Kim
Affiliation:
Department of Neurology, Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
Young Noh
Affiliation:
Department of Neurology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon, South Korea
Hee Jin Kim
Affiliation:
Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
Cindy W Yoon
Affiliation:
Department of Neurology, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon, South Korea
Yeo Jin Kim
Affiliation:
Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
Jung-Hyun Kim
Affiliation:
Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
Sang Eon Park
Affiliation:
Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
Sung Tae Kim
Affiliation:
Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
Jong-Min Lee
Affiliation:
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea
Sue J. Kang
Affiliation:
Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
Mee Kyung Suh
Affiliation:
Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
Juhee Chin
Affiliation:
Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
Duk L. Na
Affiliation:
Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
Dae Ryong Kang
Affiliation:
Biostatics of Collaboration Unit, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
Sang Won Seo*
Affiliation:
Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
*
Correspondence should be addressed to: Sang Won Seo, MD, PhD Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 81 Irwon-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-710, South Korea. Phone: +82-2-3410-1233; Fax: +82-2-3410-0052. Email: sangwonseo@empal.com.

Abstract

Background:

Epidemiological studies have reported that higher education (HE) is associated with a reduced risk of incident Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, after the clinical onset of AD, patients with HE levels show more rapid cognitive decline than patients with lower education (LE) levels. Although education level and cognition have been linked, there have been few longitudinal studies investigating the relationship between education level and cortical decline in patients with AD. The aim of this study was to compare the topography of cortical atrophy longitudinally between AD patients with HE (HE-AD) and AD patients with LE (LE-AD).

Methods:

We prospectively recruited 36 patients with early-stage AD and 14 normal controls. The patients were classified into two groups according to educational level, 23 HE-AD (>9 years) and 13 LE-AD (≤9 years).

Results:

As AD progressed over the 5-year longitudinal follow-ups, the HE-AD showed a significant group-by-time interaction in the right dorsolateral frontal and precuneus, and the left parahippocampal regions compared to the LE-AD.

Conclusion:

Our study reveals that the preliminary longitudinal effect of HE accelerates cortical atrophy in AD patients over time, which underlines the importance of education level for predicting prognosis.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © International Psychogeriatric Association 2014 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Ahn, H. J., et al. (2010). Seoul neuropsychological screening battery-dementia version (SNSB-D): a useful tool for assessing and monitoring cognitive impairments in dementia patients. Journal of Korean Medical Science, 25, 10711076. doi:10.3346/jkms.2010.25.7.1071.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alexander, G. E., et al. (1997). Association of premorbid intellectual function with cerebral metabolism in Alzheimer's disease: implications for the cognitive reserve hypothesis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 165172.Google ScholarPubMed
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google ScholarPubMed
Andel, R., Vigen, C., Mack, W. J., Clark, L. J. and Gatz, M. (2006). The effect of education and occupational complexity on rate of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's patients. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 12, 147152. doi:10.1017/s1355617706060206.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bruandet, A., et al. (2008). Cognitive decline and survival in Alzheimer's disease according to education level. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 25, 7480. doi:10.1159/000111693.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cho, H., et al. (2013a). Longitudinal changes of cortical thickness in early- versus late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiology of Aging, 34, 1921 e1929–1921 e1915. doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2013.01.004.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cho, H., et al. (2013b). Changes in subcortical structures in early- versus late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiology of Aging, 34, 17401747. doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2013.01.001.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Evans, D. A., et al. (1997). Education and other measures of socioeconomic status and risk of incident Alzheimer disease in a defined population of older persons. Archives of Neurology, 54, 13991405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fitzmaurice, G. M., Laird, N. M. and Ware, J. H. (2012). Applied Longitudinal Analysis. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
Genovese, C. R., Lazar, N. A. and Nichols, T. (2002). Thresholding of statistical maps in functional neuroimaging using the false discovery rate. NeuroImage, 15, 870878. doi:10.1006/nimg.2001.1037.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hanyu, H., Sato, T., Shimizu, S., Kanetaka, H., Iwamoto, T. and Koizumi, K. (2008). The effect of education on rCBF changes in Alzheimer's disease: a longitudinal SPECT study. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, 35, 21822190. doi:10.1007/s00259-008-0848-4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Julkunen, V., et al. (2010). Differences in cortical thickness in healthy controls, subjects with mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease patients: a longitudinal study. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 21, 11411151.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kang, Y. and Na, D. L. (2003). Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery (SNSB). Incheon, South Korea: Human Brain Research & Consulting Co.Google Scholar
Kemppainen, N. M., et al. (2008). Cognitive reserve hypothesis: Pittsburgh compound B and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in relation to education in mild Alzheimer's disease. Annals of Neurology, 63, 112118. doi:10.1002/ana.21212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lerch, J. P. and Evans, A. C. (2005). Cortical thickness analysis examined through power analysis and a population simulation. NeuroImage, 24, 163173. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.07.045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Letenneur, L., Commenges, D., Dartigues, J. F. and Barberger-Gateau, P. (1994). Incidence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in elderly community residents of south-western France. International Journal of Epidemiology, 23, 12561261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liao, Y. C., et al. (2005). Cognitive reserve: a SPECT study of 132 Alzheimer's disease patients with an education range of 0–19 years. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 20, 814. doi:10.1159/000085068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, Y., et al. (2012). Education increases reserve against Alzheimer's disease–evidence from structural MRI analysis. Neuroradiology, 54, 929938. doi:10.1007/s00234-012-1005-0.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McKeith, I. G., et al. (2005). Diagnosis and management of dementia with Lewy bodies: third report of the DLB Consortium. Neurology, 65, 18631872. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000187889.17253.b1.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McKhann, G., Drachman, D., Folstein, M., Katzman, R., Price, D. and Stadlan, E. M. (1984). Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: report of the NINCDS-ADRDA work group under the auspices of department of health and human services task force on Alzheimer's disease. Neurology, 34, 939944.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mirra, S. S., et al. (1991). The consortium to establish a registry for Alzheimer's disease (CERAD). Part II. Standardization of the neuropathologic assessment of Alzheimer's disease. Neurology, 41, 479486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Neary, D., et al. (1998). Frontotemporal lobar degeneration: a consensus on clinical diagnostic criteria. Neurology, 51, 15461554.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Qiu, C., Backman, L., Winblad, B., Aguero-Torres, H. and Fratiglioni, L. (2001). The influence of education on clinically diagnosed dementia incidence and mortality data from the Kungsholmen Project. Archives of Neurology, 58, 20342039.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Querbes, O., et al. (2009). Early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease using cortical thickness: impact of cognitive reserve. Brain, 132, 20362047. doi:10.1093/brain/awp105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roman, G. C., et al. (1993). Vascular dementia: diagnostic criteria for research studies. Report of the NINDS-AIREN International Workshop. Neurology, 43, 250260.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scarmeas, N., Albert, S. M., Manly, J. J. and Stern, Y. (2006). Education and rates of cognitive decline in incident Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 77, 308316. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2005.072306.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scarmeas, N. and Stern, Y. (2004). Cognitive reserve: implications for diagnosis and prevention of Alzheimer's disease. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports, 4, 374380.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scarmeas, N., et al. (2003). Association of life activities with cerebral blood flow in Alzheimer disease: implications for the cognitive reserve hypothesis. Archives of Neurology, 60, 359365.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Seo, S. W., et al. (2011). Effects of demographic factors on cortical thickness in Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiology of Aging, 32, 200209. doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2009.02.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stern, Y. (2002). What is cognitive reserve? Theory and research application of the reserve concept. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 8, 448460.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stern, Y. (2009). Cognitive reserve. Neuropsychologia, 47, 20152028. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2009.03.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stern, Y. (2012). Cognitive reserve in ageing and Alzheimer's disease. Lancet Neurology, 11, 10061012. doi:10.1016/s1474-4422(12)70191-6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stern, Y., Albert, S., Tang, M. X. and Tsai, W. Y. (1999). Rate of memory decline in AD is related to education and occupation: cognitive reserve? Neurology, 53, 19421947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stern, Y., Gurland, B., Tatemichi, T. K., Tang, M. X., Wilder, D. and Mayeux, R. (1994). Influence of education and occupation on the incidence of Alzheimer's disease. Journal of the American Medical Association, 271, 10041010.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Verbeke, G. and Molenberghs, G. (2000). Linear Mixed Models for Longitudinal Data. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
Wilson, R. S., Bennett, D. A., Gilley, D. W., Beckett, L. A., Barnes, L. L. and Evans, D. A. (2000). Premorbid reading activity and patterns of cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease. Archives of Neurology, 57, 17181723.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Supplementary material: PDF

Cho Supplementary Material

Figure S1

Download Cho Supplementary Material(PDF)
PDF 472 KB
Supplementary material: PDF

Cho Supplementary Material

Figure 2

Download Cho Supplementary Material(PDF)
PDF 1 MB
Supplementary material: PDF

Cho Supplementary Material

Figure S3

Download Cho Supplementary Material(PDF)
PDF 491 KB
Supplementary material: File

Cho Supplementary Material

Supplementary Material

Download Cho Supplementary Material(File)
File 135 KB
14
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Higher education affects accelerated cortical thinning in Alzheimer's disease: a 5-year preliminary longitudinal study
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Higher education affects accelerated cortical thinning in Alzheimer's disease: a 5-year preliminary longitudinal study
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Higher education affects accelerated cortical thinning in Alzheimer's disease: a 5-year preliminary longitudinal study
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *