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Development and validation of the geriatric depression inventory in Chinese culture

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  23 February 2015


Zhijuan Xie
Affiliation:
Clinical Research Division, Peking University Institute of Mental Health (Sixth Hospital), Beijing 100191, P. R. China Key Laboratory for Mental Health (Peking University), Ministry of Health, Beijing100191, P. R. China
Xiaozhen Lv
Affiliation:
Clinical Research Division, Peking University Institute of Mental Health (Sixth Hospital), Beijing 100191, P. R. China Key Laboratory for Mental Health (Peking University), Ministry of Health, Beijing100191, P. R. China
Yongdong Hu
Affiliation:
Department of Psychological Medicine, Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, P. R. China
Wanxin Ma
Affiliation:
Department of Geriatric Psychiatry, Chaoyang District Third Hospital, Beijing 100025, P. R. China
Hengge Xie
Affiliation:
Department of Geriatric Neurology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100875, P. R. China
Kai Lin
Affiliation:
Key Laboratory for Mental Health (Peking University), Ministry of Health, Beijing100191, P. R. China Psychogeriatric Unit, Peking University Institute of Mental Health, Beijing 100191, P. R. China
Xin Yu
Affiliation:
Clinical Research Division, Peking University Institute of Mental Health (Sixth Hospital), Beijing 100191, P. R. China Key Laboratory for Mental Health (Peking University), Ministry of Health, Beijing100191, P. R. China Psychogeriatric Unit, Peking University Institute of Mental Health, Beijing 100191, P. R. China
Huali Wang
Affiliation:
Clinical Research Division, Peking University Institute of Mental Health (Sixth Hospital), Beijing 100191, P. R. China Key Laboratory for Mental Health (Peking University), Ministry of Health, Beijing100191, P. R. China Psychogeriatric Unit, Peking University Institute of Mental Health, Beijing 100191, P. R. China
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Background:

Depression among older adults is under-recognized either in the community or in general hospitals in Chinese culture. This study aimed to develop a culturally appropriate screening instrument for late-life depression in the non-psychiatric settings and to test its reliability and validity for a diagnosis of depression.

Methods:

Using a Delphi method, we developed a geriatric depression inventory (GDI), consisting of 12 core symptoms of depressive disorder in old age. We investigated its reliability and validity on 89 patients with late-life depression and 249 non-depression controls. Both self-report (GDI-SR) and physician-interview (GDI-RI) versions were assessed.

Results:

Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.843 for GDI-SR and 0.880 for GDI-RI. Both GDI-SR and GDI-RI showed good concurrent validity with the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) (GDI-SR: r = 0.750, p < 0.001; GDI-RI: r = 0.733, p < 0.001). The area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was 0.938 for GDI-SR and 0.961 for GDI-RI, suggesting good to excellent discrimination of depression versus non-depression. Using a cut-off of three items endorsed, sensitivity and specificity were 92.1% and 81.9% for GDI-SR, and 93.3% and 87.1% for GDI-RI.

Conclusions:

The GDI, either based on self-report or rater interview, is a reliable and valid instrument for the detection of depression among older adults in non-psychiatric medical settings in Chinese culture.


Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © International Psychogeriatric Association 2015 

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