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The combination of depressive symptoms and smoking shorten life expectancy among the aged

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 December 2011

Cristina Fortes
Affiliation:
Clinical Epidemiology Unit, IDI-IRCSS, Rome, Italy
Simona Mastroeni
Affiliation:
Clinical Epidemiology Unit, IDI-IRCSS, Rome, Italy
Sperati Alessandra
Affiliation:
Agency for Public Health of Lazio Region, Rome, Italy
Juliana Lindau
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Sant'Andrea Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
Sara Farchi
Affiliation:
Agency for Public Health of Lazio Region, Rome, Italy
Francesco Franco
Affiliation:
Agency for Public Health of Lazio Region, Rome, Italy
Roberta Pacifici
Affiliation:
National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy
PierGiorgio Zuccaro
Affiliation:
National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy
Eva Mazzotti
Affiliation:
Oncology Unit, IDI-IRCCS, Rome, Italy
Paolo Pasquini
Affiliation:
Clinical Epidemiology Unit, IDI-IRCSS, Rome, Italy
Piero Borgia
Affiliation:
Agency for Public Health of Lazio Region, Rome, Italy
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Background: Depression is a potential risk factor for mortality among the aged and it is also associated with other chronic diseases and unhealthy lifestyles that may also affect mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between depressive symptoms and mortality, controlling for health, nutritional status, and life-style factors.

Methods: A cohort of elderly people (N = 167) was followed-up for ten years. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, medical history, smoking, and alcohol consumption was collected. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality; the secondary outcome was cancer-specific mortality. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) was used to assess depression. Using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression, we examined the association between depressive symptoms and mortality.

Results: Elderly people with depression (scoring above the depression cut-off of 7) had a 53% increased risk of mortality (relative risk (RR) 1.53; 95%CI: 1.05–2.24) compared to non-depressed subjects. The combination of depressive symptoms with smoking was associated with a particularly higher risk of mortality (RR: 2.61; 95%CI: 1.28–5.31), after controlling for potential confounders.

Conclusions: Depressive symptoms are associated with a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality. The combination of depressive symptoms and smoking shorten life expectancy among the aged.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © International Psychogeriatric Association 2011

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