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Arbitral Tribunal Decision Guyana v. Suriname

  • Stephen Fietta (a1)

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1 Specifically, the International Terrestrial Referance Frame -2005 version of WGS-84.

1 See paras. 137 and 138.

2 The leading line was printed on the 1928 edition of chart 222, and was cancelled by a Notice to Mariners in 1940.

3 The buoys were added by hand on the 1928 edition of NL chart 222 (unknown date), and the buoys were noted as “not present” in 1949.

4 Guyana Memorial, Annex 11, para. 6. and Minutes of 3rd Conference of the Mixed Commission for the Definition of the Boundary between British Guiana and Surinam, 21 December 1938. Suriname's Judge's binder Tab C-5. The beacon was not there when Counsel for Guyana visited the site in 2004.

5 Between 1965 and 2000, Guyana issued nine concessions to various companies and consortiums: to Oxoco (1971), Major Crude (1980), Seagull-Denison (1979-81), Lasmo-BHP (1988), Petrel (Albary concession, 1989), Petrel (Berbice concession, 1989), Maxus (1997), CGX (1998), and Esso (1999). See Guyana Memorial, paras. 4.9, 4.21-4.43; Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 5.7-5.44.

6 Suriname issued one concession directly to Colmar in 1957, and later entered into service contracts through Staatsolie with five other companies or consortia: Suriname Gulf Oil Company (1980), Pecten (1993), Burlington Resources (1999), Repsol (2003), and Maersk (2004). See Suriname Counter- Memorial, paras. 5.7-5.44; Guyana Memorial, paras. 4.9,4.21- 4.43.

7 Guyana Reply, para. 10.1.

8 Transcript, p. 1465.

9 Guyana Reply, para. 7.59.

10 For Guyana's submissions on jurisdiction, see Guyana Memorial, Vol. I, Chapter 6.

11 Guyana Memorial, paras. 6.5-6.6; for a general description of those negotiations, see Guyana Memorial, paras. 5.13-5.19.

12 Guyana Memorial, para. 6.7.

13 Guyana Memorial, paras. 5.13-5.19.

14 Guyana Memorial, para. 6.8.

15 Guyana Memorial, para. 6.9, citing the following cases: Southern Bluefln Tuna (New Zealand v. Japan; Australia v. Japan), Order of 27 August 1999, ITLOS Reports 1999, p. 280, at para. 60 (“Southern Bluefin Tuna“); MOX Plant (Ireland v. United Kingdom), Provisional Measures, Order of 3 December 2001, ITLOS Reports 2001, p. 95 (“MOX Plant“); Land Reclamation by Singapore in and around the Straits of Johor (Malaysia v. Singapore), Provisional Measures, Order of 8 October 2003, ITLOS Reports 2003, p. 10, at para. 48 (“Land Reclamation“); see also Transcript, pp. 59-60.

16 Guyana Memorial, paras. 6.10-6.12; Transcript, p. 60.

17 Guyana Memorial, para. 6.14.

18 Guyana Memorial, para. 6.15.

19 Guyana Reply, paras. 1.19-1.21, Chapter 2.

20 Guyana Reply, paras. 4.8-4.11.

21 Guyana Reply, paras. 2.9-2.28.

22 Guyana Reply, paras. 2.1-2.8, 2.29-2.36.

23 Guyana Reply, paras. 1.20, 2.29-2.36.

24 Guyana Reply, paras. 5.57-5.67.

25 Guyana Reply, para. 2.37.

26 Guyana Reply, para. 2.38.

27 Guyana Reply, para. 2.42.

28 Guyana Reply, para. 2.46, citing Delimitation of the Maritime Boundary in the Gulf of Maine Area, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1984, p. 246 (“Gulf of Maine“).

29 Transcript, pp. 581-582.

30 Guyana Reply, paras. 2.6, 2.47-2.48.

31 Transcript, pp. 795-796.

32 Suriname Preliminary Objections, para. 1.1.

33 Transcript, pp. 795-796.

34 Suriname Preliminary Objections, para. 4.1.

35 Suriname Preliminary Objections, paras. 4.2-4.7.

36 Suriname Preliminary Objections, para. 4.11; Transcript, pp. 772-773.

37 Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 2.70-2.80; Transcript, pp. 767- 768.

38 Suriname Preliminary Objections, paras. 1.8-1.11,4.14; Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 2.6-2.9; Transcript, pp. 761-762,778- 779.

39 uriname Rejoinder, paras. 2.15-2.29.

40 Suriname Preliminary Objections, paras. 2.1-2.12.

41 Suriname Preliminary Objections, paras. 2.1-2.10; Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 2.15-2.23.

42 Suriname Preliminary Objections, paras. 2.19-2.22.

43 Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 2.10-2.14.

44 Suriname Preliminary Objections, paras. 3.4—3.15.

45 Suriname Rejoinder, para. 2.22.

46 As to Suriname's submissions on these points in general, see Suriname Preliminary Objections, paras. 5.1-5.15.

47 Suriname Preliminary Objections, paras. 5.10-5.15.

48 Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 2.55-2.61.

49 Transcript, pp. 800-801.

50 Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 2.62-2.69, citing Gulf of Maine, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1984, p. 246.

51 Suriname Preliminary Objections, paras. 7.1-7.9; Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 2.81-2.120; Transcript, pp. 1100-1101.

52 Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 2.91-2.109.

53 Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 2.110-2.115.

54 Suriname Preliminary Objections, paras. 6.7-6.11.

55 Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 2.84-2.90.

56 Suriname Preliminary Objections, paras. 6.3-6.6.

57 Suriname Preliminary Objections, paras. 6.39-6.44.

58 Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 2.116-2.120.

59 Suriname Preliminary Objections, Chapter 8.

60 Guyana Memorial, para. 3.10.

61 Guyana Memorial, para. 3.16.

62 Guyana Memorial, paras. 3.17-3.19.

63 Guyana Memorial, para. 3.19.

64 Guyana Memorial, paras. 3.22-3.31.

65 Report of The International Law Commission to the General Asembly, Yearbook of the International Law Commission 1956, Vol. II, Doc. A/3159 (“YBILC“).

66 Guyana Memorial, para. 3.24.

67 Guyana Memorial, paras. 3.37-3.39.

68 Guyana Memorial, para. 3.42.

69 Guyana Memorial, para. 3.43.

70 Guyana Memorial, para. 3.46.

71 North Sea Continental Shelf (Federal Republic of Germany v. Denmark; Federal Republic of Germany v. Netherlands), Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1969, p. 3 (“North Sea Continental Shelf).

72 Guyana Memorial, paras. 3.45-3.48.

73 Guyana Memorial, paras. 4.6-4.8.

74 Guyana Memorial, Chapter 4.

75 Guyana Memorial, para. 4.1.

76 Guyana Memorial, para. 4.1.

77 Guyana Memorial, para. 4.2.

78 Guyana Memorial, paras. 4.2.

79 Guyana Memorial, paras. 4.12-4.14, referring to the Law Concerning the Extension of the Territorial Sea and the Establishment of a Contiguous Economic Zone of 14 April 1978 (“Surinamese April 1978 law“).

80 Guyana Memorial, paras. 4.15-4.20.

81 Guyana Memorial, Plate 9, Plate 13; Vol. V, Plate 11, Plate 1282

82 Guyana Memorial, paras. 4.3^.5.

83 Guyana Memorial, paras. 4.21-4.43.

84 Guyana Memorial, paras. A.25-A.29.

85 Guyana Memorial, para. 4.26.

86 Guyana Memorial, paras. 4.38-4.39.

87 Guyana Memorial, para. 4.32.

88 Guyana Memorial, para. 4.15.

89 Guyana Memorial, para. 4.43.

90 Guyana Memorial, paras. 4.44-4.52.

91 Guyana Memorial, paras. 4.45-4.49.

92 As to Guyana's arguments regarding Surinamese expulsion of a CGX vessel in 2000 in general, see Guyana Memorial, Chapter 5.

93 Guyana Memorial, paras. 5.3-5.7.

94 Guyana Memorial, paras. 5.4-5.7.

95 Guyana Memorial, paras. 5.8-5.9.

96 Guyana Memorial, para. 5.12.

97 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 3.2.

98 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 3.3-3.13.

99 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 3.14.

100 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 3.19-3.21.

101 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 3.22-3.26.

102 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 3.24.

103 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 3.28-3.29.

104 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 3.30.

105 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 3.31-3.32.

106 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 3.33.

107 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 3.34-3.35.

108 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 3.36.

109 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 3.36-3.42.

110 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 3.39-3.42.

111 Suriname Counter-Memorial, Figures 3, 4 and 5.

112 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 3.43-3.51.

113 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 3.15-3.18 and 3.45-3.46.

114 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 3.52-3.58.

115 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 3.58.

116 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 3.59.

117 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 3.26 and 3.60-3.62.

118 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 3.44 and 3.61.

119 Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 3.90-3.121.

120 For Guyana's submissions regarding the applicable law, see Guana Memorial, paras. 7.1-7.37. See also Transcript, pp. 237-305.

121 Transcript, pp. 244-250.

122 Guyana Memorial, paras. 7.18-7.19. See Transcript, pp. 247-249.

123 Guyana Memorial, para. 7.19, with reference in particular to the explanatory memorandum accompanying the Surinamese April 1978 law.

124 Guyana Memorial, paras. 7.22-7.23.

125 Transcript, p. 238.

126 Transcript, p. 238.

127 Guyana Memorial, para. 7.30, citing Gulf of Maine, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1984, p. 246, at p. 327, para. 194.

128 Guyana Memorial, para. 7.31, citing Maritime Delimitation and Territorial Questions between Qatar and Bahrain, Merits, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2001, p. 40, at pp. 93-94, paras. 174, 176 (“Qatar/Bahrain“).

129 Transcript, pp. 260-261.

130 Guyana Memorial, para. 7.32, citing Qatar/Bahrain and Land and Maritime Boundary between Cameroon and Nigeria (Cameroon v. Nigeria: Equatorial Guinea intervening), Judgment, I.C.J. 2002, p. 303, at para. 288 (“Cameroon/Nigeria“).

131 Guyana Reply, para. 1.22. Transcript, pp. 263-268.

132 Guyana Memorial, para. 8.33.

133 Guyana Memorial, para. 8.35.

134 Guyana Memorial, para. 8.50.

135 Guyana Memorial, paras. 7.34-7.35.

136 Guyana Reply, paras. 5.24-5.28.

137 Guyana Reply, paras. 5.29-5.32.

138 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 4.3.

139 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 4.4-4.17.

140 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 4.54-4.55; Transcript, pp. 896-899.

141 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 4.17-4.18.

142 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 4.42, citing, inter alia, Continental Shelf (Tunisia/Libyan Arab Jamahiriya), Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1982, p. 18, at p. 79, para. 109 (“Tunisia/ Libya“).

143 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 3.50-3.51.

144 Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 3.9-3.22, citing Arbitration between Barbados and the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, Award (11 April 2006), 45 I.L.M. p. 798 (2006), online: <http://www.pca-cpa.org> (“Barbados/Trinidad and To-bago“).

145 Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 3.12-3.13; Maritime Delimitation in the Area between Greenland and Jan Mayen (Denmark v. Norway), Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1993, p.38 ('Van Mayen“).

146 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 4.19—4.22.

147 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 4.27—4.36.

148 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 4.29-4.30, citing North Sea Continental Shelf, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1969, p. 3, at p. 53.

149 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 4.35-4.36, citing Gulf of Maine, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1984, p. 246.

150 Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 3.230-3.241; Transcript, pp. 976- 982.

151 Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 3.26-3.44.

152 Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 3.45-3.52.

153 Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 3.206-3.219; Transcript, pp. 958- 963.

154 Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 3.220-3.229.

155 Guyana Reply, paras. 1.24-1.27, Chapter 3, paras. 5.33-5.52.

156 Transcript, pp. 157-158.

157 Transcript, pp. 161, 194.

158 Transcript, pp. 161-162, 195.

159 Guyana Reply, paras. 3.10-3.24.

160 Guyana Reply, paras. 3.19-3.24.

161 Guyana Reply, paras. 3.19-3.24; Transcript, pp. 170-172.

162 Guyana Reply, paras. 3.28-3.34; Transcript, pp. 233-234.

163 Guyana Reply, paras. 5.33-5.52; Transcript, p. 200.

164 Guyana Reply, paras. 3.28-3.34.

165 Guyana Reply, paras. 3.35-3.51; Transcript, p. 199.

166 Transcript, p. 214.

167 Guyana Reply, paras. 3.50, 3.51-3.58.

168 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 4.44-4.49.

169 uriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 4.44—4.53; Transcript, p. 976.

170 Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 3.160-3.170.

171 Transcript, p. 935.

172 Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 3.171-3.182.

173 See Transcript, p. 935.

174 Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 3.195-3.199.

175 Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 3.183-3.194; Transcript, pp. 936- 937.

176 Guyaa Reply, paras. 4.3-4.7.

177 Guyana Reply, paras. 4.12-4.22.

178 Guyana Rely, paras. 4.23.49.

179 Transcript, pp. 283-284.

180 Guyana Reply, paras. 3.31-3.39.

181 Guyana Reply, para. 4.36.

182 Guyana Memorial, para. 8.51; Transcript, pp. 337-338.

183 Guyana Memorial, para. 8.51; Transcript, p. 338.

184 Guyana Memorial, paras. 8.51-8.56.

185 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 4.37-4.41.

186 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 4.37.

187 Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 3.90-3.143, 3.144-3.157.

188 Suriname Rejoinder, para. 3.84.

189 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 5.1, citing Tunisia/Libya, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1982, p. 18.

190 As to Suriname's submission on this point generally, see Suriname Counter-Memorial, Chapter 5; Transcript, pp. 999 - 1010.

191 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 5.45-5.55.

192 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 5.49-5.53.

193 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 5.71; Transcript, pp. 1010-1014, citing Gulf of Maine, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1984, p. 246. Suriname in its oral pleadings also dealt with Continental Shelf (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya/Malta), Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1985, p. 13 (“Libya/Malta“) (Transcript, pp. 1014-1016) and the Jan Mayen case (Transcript, pp. 1016- 1022).

194 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 5.4.

195 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 5.9-5.44.

196 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 5.7, 5.13.

197 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 5.13.

198 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 5.36.

199 Transcript, pp. 1058-1059.

200 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 5.56-5.72.

201 Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 3.122-3.133.

202 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 5.73-5.79.

203 Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 3.135-3.143.

204 Guyana identifies two different coordinates for this point: 6° 13’ 49.0“N, 56° 59’ 21.2“W (Guyana Reply, para. 6.44) and 6° 13’ 46“N, 56° 59’ 32“W (Guyana Reply, paras. 7.1, 7.59).

205 As to Guyana's arguments concerning delimitation of the territorial sea, see Guyana Memorial, Chapter 8. See also Transcript, pp. 276-365.

206 Guyana Memorial, para. 8.3l(b); Transcript, pp. 337-338.

207 Guyana Memorial, para. 8.3l(c); Transcript, pp. 338-339.

208 Guyana Memorial, para. 8.3 l(a); Transcript, pp. 76-136, 289.

209 Guyana Reply, paras. 6.5-6.6.

210 Guyana Memorial, para. 8.39.

211 Guyana Reply, paras. 1.23, 6.13-6.22.

212 Guyana Memorial, paras. 8.41-8.43.

213 Guyana Reply, paras. 6.23-6.43.

214 Guyana Memorial, para. 8.44; Guyana Reply, para. 6.23.

215 Transcript, pp. 351-358.

216 Guyana Reply, paras. 6.24-6.34, citing Controversy concerning The Beagle Channel Region (Argentina/Chile), Award of 18 February 1977, 17 I.L.M. p. 634, at p. 673, para. 108(1978), R.I.A.A., Vol. 21, p. 53 (1997) (“Beagle Channel“).

217 Guyana Reply, paras. 6.35-6.37; Transcript, p. 342.

218 Guyana Memorial, para. 8.46; Transcript, p. 343.

219 Guyana Reply, paras. 6.38-6.43.

220 Guyana Reply, paras. 5.57-5.67.

221 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 4.56-4.72.

222 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 4.60-4.61; Transcript, p. 830.

223 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 6.50-6.53; Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 3.256-3.273.

224 Guyana identifies two different coordinates for this point: 6° 13’ 49.0“N, 56° 59’ 21.2“W (Guyana Reply, para. 6.44) and 6° 13’ 46“N, 56° 59’ 32“W (Guyana Reply, paras. 7.1, 7.59).

225 Guyana Memorial, para. 9.1.

226 Guyana Memorial, paras. 9.3-9.4.

227 Guyana Memorial, para. 9.8.

228 Guyana Memorial, para. 9.4.

229 Guyana Memorial, para. 9.5.

230 Guyana Memorial, paras. 9.6-9.25.

231 Guyana Memorial, paras. 9.9-9.17.

232 Guyana Memorial, paras. 9.9-9.17.

233 Guyana Memorial, para. 9.18; Transcript, p. 400.

234 Guyana Memorial, para. 9.19.

235 Guyana Memorial, para. 9.18.

236 Guyana Memorial, para. 9.20.

237 Guyana Memorial, para. 9.21.

238 Guyana Memorial, para. 9.22; Guyana Reply, paras. 7.38- 7.44.

239 Guyana Memorial, para. 9.24.

240 Guyana Memorial, para. 9.25.

241 Guyana Memorial, paras. 9.29-9.31.

242 Guyana Memorial, paras. 9.32-9.33.

243 Guyana Memorial, paras. 9.26-9.28.

244 Guyana Memorial, para. 9.34.

245 Guyana Memorial, paras. 9.34-9.37.

246 Guyana Memorial, paras. 9.35-9.37.

247 Guyana Memorial, para. 9.37.

248 Guyana Reply, paras. 7.45-7.57.

249 Guyana Memorial, paras. 9.43-9.45.

250 Guyana Memorial, para. 9.45.

251 Guyana Reply, paras. 7.6-7.14.

252 Guyana Reply, paras. 7.15-7.22.

253 Guyana Reply, paras. 7.23-7.37; Transcript, pp. 437-444.

254 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 6.4-6.7, citing North Sea Continental Shelf, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1969, p. 3, at p. 17, para. 8; Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 6.8-6.9,6.24- 6.35.

255 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 6.8-6.12.

256 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 6.13-6.18, Figure 31.

257 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 6.24-6.26, 6.41-6.44, Figure 33.

258 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 6.27-6.30.

259 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 6.20.

260 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 6.20-6.21; Transcript, pp. 964-965.

261 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 6.36.

262 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 6.48-6.49.

263 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 6.54-6.57.

264 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 6.56-6.57.

265 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 6.59, citing Gulf of Maine (Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1984, p. 246), Libya/Malta (Judg ment, I.C.J. Reports 1985, p. 13), and Jan Mayen (Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1993, p. 38); Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 3.274- 3.279.

266 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 6.60.

267 Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 3.242-3.253.

268 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 6.37-6.38, citing the ap proach taken in Gulf of Maine (Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1984, p. 246).

269 Guyana Memorial, para. 10.3; Transcript, pp. 573-576.

270 Guyana Memorial, paras. 10.4-10.5; Transcript, pp. 576-581.

271 Guyana Memorial, paras. 10.12-10.23; Transcript, pp. 551- 556.

272 Transcript, pp. 562-564, 571.

273 Guyana Memorial, paras. 10.17-10.21.

274 Guyana Memorial, para. 10.21; Transcript, pp. 570-571.

275 Guyana Memorial, paras. 10.23-10.24.

276 Transcript, p. 572.

277 Guyana Memorial, paras. 10.27-10.33.

278 Guyana Reply, paras. 8.1-8.19.

279 Transcript, pp. 582-586.

280 Transcript, pp. 556-557.

281 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 7.1; Transcript, pp. 1076- 1079.

282 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 7.3.

283 Transcript, pp. 1193-1198.

284 Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 4.5-4.11; Transcript, p. 1092.

285 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 7.13-7.16.

286 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 7.23; Transcript, pp. 1106-1110.

287 Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 4.32-4.56.

288 Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 4.57-4.73; Transcript, pp. 1110— 1111, 1116-1126.

289 Transcript, pp. 1126-1131.

290 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 7.17-7.21; Transcript, pp. 1101-1106.

291 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 7.11.

292 Suriname Rejoinder, para. 4.13.

293 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 7.42-7.43, citing Aegean Sea Continental Shelf (Greece v. Turkey), Interim Protection, Order of 11 September 1976, I.C.J. Reports 1976, paras. 30 - 31 (“Aegean Sea“).

294 Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 4.13^1.16.

295 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 7.40-7.45; Suriname Re joinder, paras. 4.17-4.31.

296 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 7.26-7.39; Transcript, pp. 1131-1132.

297 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 7.29-7.39.

298 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 4.74-4.79.

299 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 7.35-7.36.

300 Guyana Memorial, para. 10.6.

301 Guyana Memorial, para. 10.7.

302 Guyana Memorial, para. 10.8.

303 Guyana Reply, paras. 9.1-9.14.

304 Transcript, pp. 607-609.

305 Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 5.6-5.14.

306 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 8.2-8.10.

307 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 8.11-8.16.

308 Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 5.15-5.21.

309 Transcript, pp. 795-796.

310 Suriname Rejoinder, para. 3.259.

311 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 3.14.

312 Transcript, p. 829.

313 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 3.12, Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 3.263, 3.264.

314 Transcript, p. 835.

315 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 6.51-6.52; Suriname Re joi315der, para. 3.265.

316 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 3.8, citing Report on the Inauguration of the Mark at the Northern Terminal of the Boundary Between Surinam and British Guiana, Guyana Memorial, Annex II, at para. 4.

317 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 3.9.

318 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 3.12, citing Guyana Memorial, para. 3.16.

319 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 3.13.

320 Transcript, p. 850.

321 Transcript, p. 851; Aegean Sea, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1978, p. 3, at p. 33, para. 80.

322 Transcript, p. 852.

323 Transcript, p. 853.

324 Transcript, p. 854.

325 Guyana identifies two different coordinates for this point: 6° 13’ 49.0“N, 56° 59’ 21.2“W (Guyana Reply, para. 6.44) and 6° 13’ 46“N, 56° 59’ 32“W (Guyana Reply, paras. 7.1, 7.59).

326 Guyana Memorial, para. 8.26.

327 Guyana Reply, para. 8.20.

328 Guyana Memorial, para. 8.30.

329 Guyana Reply, para. 6.41.

330 In support of this argument, Guyana cites Tunisia/Libya, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1982, p. 18, at paras. 84, 94, 119.

331 Transcript, p. 332.

332 Guyana Memorial, para. 8.26.

333 Guyana Memorial, para. 8.24.

334 Guyana Memorial, para. 8.24.

335 Guyana Memorial, para. 8.28.

336 Guyana Reply, para. 6.23.

337 Guyana Reply, para. 6.26.

338 Guyana Reply, para. 6.30, Beagle Channel, 17 I.L.M. p. 634, Annex IV, para. 4, XXI R.I.A.A. p. 57.

339 Guyana Reply, para. 6.33.

340 Guyana Reply, paras. 1.6, 3.51-3.53; Suriname Counter-Me morial, paras. 3.32-3.33, 6.51-6.53.

341 Guyana Reply, para. 6.30.

342 YBILC, 1952, Vol. II, Doc.A/CN.4/53.

343 See also ibid., Doc. A/CN.4/61/Add.l/Annex.

344 UK-French Continental Shelf, 54 I.L.R. p. 5 (1979), para. 70.

345 Libya/Malta, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1985, p. 13, at p. 40, para. 48. However, it should be noted that that statement was limited; the Court found in that case that “only [considerations] that are pertinent to the institution of the continental shelf as it has developed within the law, and to the application of equitable principles to its delimitation, will qualify for inclusion.“

346 Jan Mayen, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1993, p. 38, at para. 53.

347 Jan Mayen, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1993, p. 38, at para. 54.

348 Jan Mayen, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1993, p. 38, at para. 58.

349 The Court in Jan Mayen (I.C.J. Reports 1993, p. 38, at para. 58) quoting the Libya/Malta Judgment (I.C.J. Reports 1985, p. 39, at para. 45).

350 Proceedings of the Geneva Conference on the Law of the Sea, Thirty-second meeting, 9 April 1958, in United Nations Conferences on the Law of the Sea: Official Records (Buffalo: Hein, 1980), p. 93.

351 Beagle Channel, 17 I.L.M. p. 634, at p. 673, para. 110 (1978).

352 Guyana Reply, paras. 6.29-6.30.

353 The arbitral tribunal in the UK - French Continental Shelf arbitration similarly considered the navigational, defence and security interests of both parties in its delimitation (54 I.L.R. p. 5, at para. 188 (1979)). Those considerations included defence plans, sea rescue, control of navigation, and responsibility for lights and buoys (para. 163). Although the arbitral tribunal considered those interests, it found that they did not exercise “a decisive influence on the delimitation of the boundary“ in that case due to the ‘ ‘very particular character of the English Channel as a major route of international maritime navigation serving ports outside the territories of either of the Parties“ (para. 188). However, the tribunal did find that even in that case, they could “support and strengthen … any conclusions that are already indicated by the geographical, political and legal circumstances of the region” (para. 188).

354 Guyana Reply, para. 6.30.

355 Guyana Reply, para. 3.53.

356 Transcript, p. 344.

357 Suriname Preliminary Objections, para. 5.7.

358 Transcript, pp. 179-180.

359 Transcript, p. 691.

360 Suriname Preliminary Objections, para. 4.14.

361 “If … there is indeed an agreed boundary in the territorial sea … then the terminus of the maritime boundary provides a perfectly adequate starting point, and every issue that this Tribunal would have to decide would be governed by the provisions of the Law of the Sea Convention.” (Transcript, pp. 795-796).

362 Written Question to the Parties from the Tribunal Hydrographer, 20 December 2006.

363 Letter from Guyana to the Tribunal, 10 January 2007.

364 Letter from Suriname to the Tribunal, 12 January 2007.

365 Tribunal Hydrographer Corrected Report on Site Visit, 30 July 2007, para. 42.

366 Suriname Rejoinder, para. 3.75.

367 Case concerning Sovereignty over certain Frontier Land (Belgium v. Netherlands), Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1959, p. 209.

368 Ibid, at p. 229.

369 United States Congress, From 1st Session, Report of the 105th Congress, 105-236, Coast Guard Authorization Act of 1997.

370 It should be noted that Guyana ratified the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982, on 31 July 1993 and has declared a 12 nm territorial sea and a contiguous zone extending to 24 nm. Suriname ratified the Convention on 9 July 1998 and has declared a 12 nm territorial sea. It has not declared a contiguous zone.

371 Transcript, p. 850.

372 Transcript, p. 851.

373 Aegean Sea, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1978, p. 3, at pp. 35-36, para. 86.

374 Commander Kennedy to Mr. Scarlett, 15 January 1959, Guyana Memorial, Annex 24; Mr. Scarlett to Commander Kennedy, 11 February 1959, Guyana Memorial, Annex 25.

375 Tribunal Hydrographer Corrected Report on Site Visit, 30 July 2007, para. 42.

376 Articles 74 and 83.

377 Articles 74(1) and 83(1).

378 Eritrea/Yemen, Award of the Arbitral Tribunal in the Second Stage of the Proceedings (Maritime Delimitation), 119 I.L.R. p. 417, at para. 116 (1999), The Eritrea-Yemen Arbitration Awards of 1998 & 1999 (Permanent Court of Arbitration Award Series 2005), online: <http://www.pca-cpa.org> (“Eritrea/Yemen II“).

379 Tunisia/Libya, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1982, p. 18, at para. 50.

380 Barbados/Trinidad and Tobago, 45 I.L.M. p. 798 (2006), at para. 222, online: <http://www.pca-cpa.org>.

381 See Qatar/Bahrain, Merits, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2001, p. 40, at para. 173; and Cameroon/Nigeria, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2002, p. 303, at para. 286.

382 Barbados/Trinidad and Tobago, 45 I.L.M. p. 798 (2006), at para. 244, online: <http://www.pca-cpa.org>.

383 Jan Mayen, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1993, p. 38, at para. 51.

384 Ibid., at para. 53.

385 Qatar/Bahrain, Merits, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2001, p. 40, at para. 230.

386 Cameroon/Nigeria, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2002, p. 303, at para. 290.

387 See Qatar/Bahrain, Merits, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2001, p. 40, at para. 170.

388 Award of the Tribunal in the Second Phase, 26 March 2002, para. 2.28. See also Eritrea/Yemen II, 119 I.L.R. p. 417 (1999), The Eritrea-Yemen Arbitration Awards of 1998 & 1999 (Per manent Court of Arbitration Award Series 2005), online: <http://www.pca-cpa.org>.

389 Barbados/Trinidad and Tobago, 45 I.L.M. p. 798 (2006), at para. 242, online: <http://www.pca-cpa.org>. The Barbados/ Trinidad and Tobago tribunal refers to the ICJ decisions in Cameroon/Nigeria (Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2002, p. 303) and Qatar/Bahrain (Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2001, p. 40), as well as Prosper Weil's text Perspectives du droit de la délimitation maritime (p. 223 (1988)), in support of its two-step approach.

390 Barbados/Trinidad and Tobago, 45 I.L.M. p. 798 (2006), at para. 244, online: <http://www.pca-cpa.org>.

391 Qatar/Bahrain, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2001, p. 40, at para. 178.

392 North Sea Continental Shelf, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1969, p. 3, at para. 96.

393 Aegean Sea, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1978, p. 3, at para. 86.

394 Guyana Memorial, para. 8.35; Qatar/Bahrain, Merits, Judg ment, I.C.J. Reports 2001, p. 40, at para. 185.

395 Guyana Reply, para. 3.17.

396 Guyana Reply, para. 3.18.

397 Jan Mayen, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1993, p. 38, at para. 67.

398 Suriname Rejoinder, para. 3.164.

399 Transcript, p. 920.

400 Transcript, pp. 920-921.

401 Tunisia/Libya, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1982, p. 18, at para. 75.

402 Jan Mayen, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1993, p. 38, at para. 67; Arbitration between Newfoundland and Labrador and Nova Scotia, Second Phase (2002), at para. 4.20 (“Newfoundland and Labrador and Nova Scotia“).

403 Qatar/Bahrain, Merits, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2001, p. 40, at para. 177.

404 Guyana Memorial, p. 135; Suriname Counter-Memorial, Chapter 6.

405 Guyana Memorial, para. 7.35; Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 2.6.

406 Gulf of Maine, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1984, p. 246, at para. 194.

407 Ibid., at para. 195.

408 Barbados/Trinidad and Tobago, 45 I.L.M. p. 798 (2006), at p. 837, para. 228, online: <http://www.pcacpa.org>.

409 Guyana Reply, para. 3.1; Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 2.18.

410 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 6.20.

411 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 6.21.

412 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 6.27.

413 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 6.22.

414 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 6.28.

415 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 6.23.

416 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 6.30.

417 Guyana Reply, para. 3.45.

418 Guyana Reply, para. 3.46, citing Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 6.22.

419 Guyana Reply, para. 3.46.

420 Ibid.

421 Ibid.

422 Ibid.

423 Ibid.

424 Guyana Reply, para. 3.47.

425 Ibid.

426 Suriname Rejoinder, p. 69, para. 3.79.

427 Suriname Counter-Memorial, p. 103, para. 6.46.

428 Suriname Counter-Memorial, paras. 6.47-6.48.

429 St-Pierre et Miquelon (Canada v. France), 95 I.L.R. p. 645 (“St-Pierre et Miquelon“).

430 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 4.34.

431 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 4.32.

432 Transcript, p. 198.

433 Cameroon/Nigeria, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2002, p. 303, at para. 295. See UK - French Continental Shelf, 54 I.L.R. p. 5 (1979), at para. 249.

434 Cameroon/Nigeria, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2002, p. 303, at para. 295, citing North Sea Continental Shelf, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1969, p. 50, para. 91.

435 Suriname Rejoinder, para. 3.183; Transcript, p. 162.

436 Transcript, pp. 162, 227, 904; Guyana Reply, para. 3.2.

437 Transcript, p. 162; Suriname Rejoinder, para. 3.183.

438 Guyana Reply, Annex R.I, para. 4.

439 Guyana Memorial, para. 7.34.

440 Suriname Counter Memorial, para. 4.37.

441 Tunisia/Libya, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1982, p. 18, at para. 118.

442 Gulf of Maine, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1984, p. 246, at para. 150.

443 Libya/Malta, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1985, p. 13, at p. 29, para. 25.

444 Ibid.

445 Suriname Rejoinder, para. 3.147; Suriname Rejoinder, Annex 41.

446 Cameroon/Nigeria, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2002, p. 303, at p. 447, para. 303.

447 Ibid.

448 Ibid., at pp. 447-448, para. 304.

449 St-Pierre et Miquelon, 95 I.L.R. p. 645.

450 Newfoundland and Labrador and Nova Scotia, Award Second Phase (2002), at para. 3.5.

451 Barbados/Trinidad and Tobago, 45 I.L.M. p. 798 (2006), at para. 364, online: <http://www.pca-cpa.org>.

452 Ibid., at para. 366.

453 Cameroon/Nigeria, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2002, p. 303, at para. 304.

454 Guyana Memorial, para. 3.50.

455 Suriname Counter-Memorial, para. 2.20.

456 Ibid.

457 Jan Mayen, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1993, p. 38, at para. 86.

458 See Suriname Counter-Memorial, Annex 69; Guyana Reply, Annex 26.

459 Guyana Reply, para. 6.14.

460 See Technical Report of the Tribunal's Hydrographer in the Appendix to this Award.

461 Guyana Reply, paras. 1.10, 3.19; Transcript, pp. 170-172; Suriname Rejoinder, Annex SR43.

462 Guyana Reply, para. 3.19.

463 Guyana Reply, para. 10.1.

464 Guyana Reply, para. 10.1.

465 Transcript, p. 1092.

466 The Convention, preamble.

467 M/V “Saiga” (No. 2) (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines v. Guinea), Judgment, ITLOS Reports 1999, p. 7, at para. 155 (“Saiga“).

468 Suriname Rejoinder, para. 4.7.

469 Transcript, pp. 1093-1094.

470 Transcript, p. 1094.

471 Southern Bluefln Tuna, Order of 27 August 1999, ITLOS Reports 1999, p. 280.

472 MOX Plant, Provisional Measures, Order of 3 December 2001, ITLOS Reports 2001, p. 95, at para. 60.

473 Land Reclamation, Provisional Measures, Order of 8 October 2003, ITLOS Reports 2003, p. 10, at para. 47.

474 Transcript, p. 1099.

475 Transcript, p. 1099.

476 James Crawford, The International Law Commission's Articles on State Responsibility: Introduction, Text and Commentaries, p. 162 (2002).

477 Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Advisory Opinion, I.C.J. Re ports 2004, p. 136 at para. 63; Oil Platforms (Islamic Republic of Iran v. United States of America), Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2003, p. 161,at para. 100; Legality ofUseofForce (Serbia and Montenegro v. Belgium), Preliminary Objections, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2004, p. 279: in this case Belgium raised the question of clean hands in its preliminary objections (Prelimi nary Objections of the Kingdom of Belgium, Legality of Use of Force (Serbia and Montenegro v. Belgium), (5 July 2000), available at http://www.icjcij.org/docket/files/105/8340.pdf), but the Court did not address the argument in its judgment.

478 Legal Status of Eastern Greenland, P.C.I.J. Series A/B, No. 53, p. 95 (Dissenting Opinion of Judge Anzilotti).

479 Diplomatic and Consular Staff, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1980, p. 3, at p. 53 (Dissenting Opinion of Judge Morozov) [emphasis in original].

480 Diplomatic and Consular Staff, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1980, p. 3, at p. 54 (Dissenting Opinion of Judge Morozov)

481 Arrest Warrant of 11 April 2000 (Democratic Republic of Congo v. Belgium), Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2002, p. 3, at para. 35 (Dissenting Opinion of Judge ad hoc Van den Wyngaert).

482 Suriname Rejoinder, para. 2.102.

483 See e.g. Case Concerning the Arrest Warrant of 11 April 2000 (Democratic Republic of Congo v. Belgium), n. 82 (Dissenting Opinion of Judge ad hoc Van den Wyngaert).

484 Military and Paramilitary Activities in and against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v. United States of America), Merits, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1986, p. 14, at para. 272 (Dissenting Opinion of Judge Schwebel) (“Nicaragua“).

485 Nicaragua, Merits, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1986, p. 14, at paras. 269-270 (Dissenting Opinion of Judge Schwebel).

486 Diversion of Water from the Meuse, P.C.I.J. Series A/B, No. 70, p. 22, at p. 77 (Individual Opinion by Judge Hudson).

487 Diversion of Water from the Meuse, p. 78 (Individual Opinion by Judge Hudson).

488 Ibid.

489 Ibid.

490 Ibid., at p. 77.

491 Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 2.110-2.115.

492 Eritrea-Ethiopia Claims Commission, Partial Award, Jus ad Bellum: Ethiopia's Claims 1-8 (19 Dec. 2005), 45 I.L.M. p. 430 (2006), at para. 10, online: <http://www.pca-cpa.org>.

493 Cameroon/Nigeria, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2002, p. 303.

494 Ibid., at paras. 323-324.

495 Ibid., at paras. 310, 319.

496 In the jurisdiction and admissibility phase, Nigeria had argued that the State responsibility claims were inadmissible, but only on the grounds that Cameroon did not adduce enough evidence to support them. That challenge was rejected by the Court: Cameroon/Nigeria, Preliminary Objections, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1998, p. 275.

497 Guyana Memorial, Chapter 10.

498 Transcript, pp. 573-574, citing Bruno Simma, ed., The Charter of the United Nations: A Commentary, p. 587 (2nd ed., 2002).

499 Transcript, pp. 575-576.

500 Guyana Memorial, para. 10.5.

501 Transcript, p. 575; G.A. Res. 37/10, Annex, U.N. Doc. A/ RES/37/10 (15 Nov. 1982).

502 Guyana Memorial, Annex 175.

503 Guyana Memorial, Annex 175.

504 Guyana Memorial, Annex 176.

505 Suriname Rejoinder, Annex 20.

506 Suriname Rejoinder, Annex 20.

507 Suriname Rejoinder, Annex 16.

508 Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, Advisory Opinion, I.C.J. Reports 1996, p. 226, at para. 47. Scholarly opinion is in line with this proposition: see Ian Brownlie, International Law and the Use of Force, p. 364 (1964).

509 Nicaragua, Merits, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1986, p. 14, at para. 190.

510 Ibid., at para. 191.

511 Ibid.

512 Suriname Rejoinder, para. 4.34; Decree of 8 May 1986, Suri name Counter-Memorial, Annex 54 (translation provided in Suriname Rejoinder, Annex SR31).

513 Fisheries Jurisdiction (Spain v. Canada), Jurisdiction of the Court, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1998, p. 432 (“Fisheries Jurisdiction“).

514 Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 4.59-4.61.

515 Suriname Rejoinder, para. 4.61.

516 Saiga, Judgment, ITLOS Reports 1999, p. 7, at para. 156.

517 Transcript, p. 580.

518 See 5.5. ‘ ‘I'm Alone'’ (Canada/United States), R.I.A.A. Vol. 3, p. 1615; Red Crusader (Commission of Enquiry, Denmark- United Kingdom), 35 I.L.R. p. 199; Saiga, Judgment, ITLOS Reports 1999, p. 7.

519 Suriname Rejoinder, para. 4.32.

520 James Crawford, The International Law Commission's Arti cles on State Responsibility: Introduction, Text and Commentaries (2002).

521 Corfu Channel, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1949, p. 4, at p. 35; Nicaragua, Merits, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1986, p. 16, at p. 127, para. 249.

522 “States have a duty to refrain from acts of reprisal involving the use of force.“: G.A. Res. 2625 (XXV) of 24 October 1970, first principle, para. 6.

523 Nicaragua, Merits, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1986, p. 14, at para. 191.

524 Article 290(5) of the Convention.

525 Suriname Rejoinder, para. 4.3.

526 Cameroon/Nigeria, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2002, p. 303, para. 319.

527 Guyana Reply, para. 10.1.

528 Suriname Rejoinder, Chapter 6.

529 Suriname Preliminary Objections, paras. 7.1-7.9.

530 8 August 1998 is the thirtieth day after Suriname ratified the Convention on the 9 July 1998: Transcript, p. 608. 531Suriname Rejoinder, para. 5(2)(i).

532 Myron H. Nordquist, ed., United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982: A Commentary, Vol. II., p. 815 (Nijhoff) (“Virginia Commentary“); Lagoni, Rainer, Interim Measures Pending Delimitation Agreements, 78 Am. J. Int'l L. p. 345, at p. 354 (1984).

533 Thomas A. Mensah, Joint Development Zones as an Alternative Dispute Settlement Approach in Maritime Boundary Delimitation, in Rainer Lagoni & Daniel Vignes, Maritime Delimitation, p. 143, at p. 143 (Nijhoff 2006); the Convention, preamble.

534 Virginia Commentary, Vol. II, p. 815.

535 The Convention, Articles 74(3), 83(3).

536 Rainer Lagoni, Report on Joint Development of Non-living Resources in the Exclusive Economic Zone, I.L.A. Report of the Sixty-Third Conference, p. 509, at pp. 511-512 (1988), quoted in Mensah, Joint Development Zones as an Alternative Dispute Settlement Approach in Maritime Boundary Delimitation, in Rainer Lagoni and Daniel Vignes, Maritime Delimita tion, p. 143, at p. 146 (Nijhoff, 2006).

537 Eritrea/Yemen II, 1191.L.R. p. 417 (1999), The Eritrea-Yemen Arbitration Awards of 1998 & 1999 (Permanent Court of Arbitration Award Series 2005), online: <http://www.pca-cpa.org>.

538 North Sea Continental Shelf, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1969, p. 3 at para. 97.

539 North Sea Continental Shelf, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1969, p. 3 at para. 99.

540 Virginia Commentary, Vol. II, p. 815.

541 Aegean Sea, Interim Protection, Order, I.C.J. Reports 1976, p. 3, at para. 30.

542 Ibid, at para. 31.

543 Ibid.

544 Suriname Rejoinder, paras. 5.12-5.14.

545 Guyana Reply, paras. 9.1-9.14.

546 Joint Communiqué Signed at the Conclusion of the State Visit to Suriname by Hugh Desmond Hoyte, President of the Cooperative Republic of Guyana and Ramsewak Shankar, President of the Republic of Suriname (25 December 1989): Guyana Memorial, Annex 72.

547 Guyana Memorial, para. 4.32.

548 Suriname Preliminary Objections, paras. 6.26-6.28.

549 Suriname Preliminary Objections, para. 6.28.

550 Guyana Memorial, paras. 4.36-4.37.

551 Cable 94 Georgetown 2405 from the United States Embassy in Georgetown, Guyana to the United States Secretary of State (21 July 1994), Guyana Reply, Annex Rll: “Mungra responded that the MOU had no validity because it had never been approved by the Surinamese Parliament.“

552 CGX Press Releases, 29 September 1999, reproduced in Guy ana Memorial, Annex 158.

553 Guyana Memorial, Annex 158.

554 Suriname Preliminary Objections, paras. 6.34-6.35.

555 uyana Memorial, Annex 48.

556 Guyana Memorial, Annex 77.

557 Guyana Memorial, Annex 78.

558 Guyana Memorial, Annex 79.

559 Guyana appears to have authorised CGX to drill in the disputed area on 10 August 1999, almost a full year before the CGX incident: Press Releases, Guyana Memorial, Annex 158.

560 Guyana Memorial, Annex 81.

561 Guyana Memorial, Annex 82.

562 Guyana Memorial, Annex 83.

563 Suriname Counter-Memorial, Annex 8, p. 6.

564 Guyana Memorial, Annex 85.

565 Guyana Memorial, Annexes 87-88.

566 See Suriname Daily Judge's Folder, Vol. II, Tab H5 for a list of diplomatic post-August 1998 exchanges between Suriname and Guyana concerning a provisional arrangement or final delimitation of the maritime boundary.

567 Suriname Rejoinder, Chapter 6, Submission 2.C.

568 Guyana Reply, para. 8.1.

569 The Convention, Article 290.

570 Saiga, Judgment, ITLOS Repports 1999,p.7,at para.171

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Arbitral Tribunal Decision Guyana v. Suriname

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