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Writing about Workers, Reflecting on Dictatorship and Neoliberalism: Chilean Labor History and the Pinochet Dictatorship

  • Ángela Vergara (a1)

Abstract

This article explores the trajectory of Chilean labor history and its recent efforts to study workers’ experiences under the Augusto Pinochet dictatorship (1973–1990). Influenced by the impact of dictatorship on Chilean society as well as global historiographical debates, Labor Studies became an interdisciplinary and transnational field in Chile. This article focuses on the different academic traditions that have intersected with and contributed to the study of workers’ experiences under the dictatorship. It considers the multiple origins of New Labor Studies and includes the social history of both rural and urban movements, labor sociology, feminist historiography, and transnational history. It also looks at the multiple debates taking place in Chile and in other parts of the world. Bringing them together offers the opportunity to see the intersections, collaborations, and influences that have made the study of Chilean workers a dynamic field.

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Copyright

Footnotes

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The writing of this article was made possible by a course release provided by the History Department at California State University of Los Angeles in spring 2017. I thank Larissa Corrêa for inviting me to present an earlier version of this article at the “Seminário Internacional Mundos do Trabalho e Ditaduras no Cone Sul” in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in October 2015. I also thank Peter Winn for encouraging me to write this article and for his comments and suggestions.

Footnotes

References

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NOTES

1. The most comprehensive overview of Chilean labor historiography is Flores, Jorge Rojas, “Los trabajadores en la historiografía chilena: balances y proyecciones,” Revista de Economía y Trabajo (PET) 10 (2000): 47117.

2. The “classic” Chilean Marxist labor historians are Julio César Jobet, Hernán Ramírez Necochea, Marcelo Segall, Jorge Barría, and Luis Vitale.

3. Tinsman, Heidi, “A Paradigm of Our Own: Joan Scott in Latin American History,” American Historical Review 113:5 (2008): 1357–74.

4. Vallejos, Julio Pinto, “Cien años de propuestas y combates. La historiografía chilena durante el siglo XX,” in Cien años de propuestas y combates. La historiografía chilena durante el siglo XX, eds. Vallejos, Julio Pinto and Argudín, María Luna (Mexico: Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, 2006), 83.

5. On the impact of the dictatorship on the University of Chile, Chile's largest and most emblematic public university, see: Acuña, María Elena and Montecinos, Sonia, eds., Huellas de un acecho (Santiago: Ediciones de la Universidad de Chile, 2013).

6. Some of the most influential NGOs and research centers in Chile that sponsored historical research during the dictatorship were: Corporación de Estudios para Latinoamérica (CIEPLAN, founded in 1976), Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales (FLACSO), and SUR (formed in 1978).

7. In recent studies, historians have demonstrated the importance of the international solidarity movement in supporting both Chileans in exile and social organizations in Chile. See: Saavedra, Manuel Bastías, Sociedad civil en dictadura: relaciones transnacionales, organizaciones y socialización política en Chile (Santiago: Ediciones Universidad Alberto Hurtado, 2013); Camacho, Fernando, Una vida para Chile: La solidaridad y la comunidad chilena en Suecia 1970–2000 (Santiago: LOM, 2011); Christiaens, Kim, Goddeeris, Idesbald, and García, Magaly Rodríguez, eds., European Solidarity with Chile. 1970s–1980s (Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Frankfurt/M., New York, Oxford, Warsaw, Wien: Peter Lang, 2013).

8. I have discussed some of these reactions in a previous article, Vergara, Ángela, “El reportaje a Chile,” in Rolle, Claudio et al. , 1973: La vida cotidiana de un año crucial (Santiago: Planeta, 2003). For a personal account on the impact of the coup on foreign visitors, see Cooper, Marc, Pinochet and Me: A Chilean Anti-Memoir (New York: Verso, 2002).

9. Jones, Ann, No Trucks with the Chilean Junta (Canberra: Australian University Press, 2014), 5.

10. Green, James, We Cannot Remain Silent: Opposition to the Brazilian Military Dictatorship in the United States (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2010).

11. Tanya Harmer looks at the debates that took place among the Chilean left in Cuba, The View from Havana: Chilean Exiles in Cuba and Early Resistance to Chile's Dictatorship, 1973–1977,” Hispanic American Historical Review 96:1 (2016): 109–46.”

12. Gabriel Salazar, “Historiografía y dictadura en Chile (1973–1990): búsqueda, identidad y dispersion,” Cuadernos Hispanoamericanos August–September (1990): 81–94. See also Pinto, “Cien años de propuestas y combates.”

13. Gabriel Salazar, La historia desde abajo y desde dentro (Santiago: Departamento de Teoría de las Artes, Facultad de Arte, Universidad de Chile, n.d.), 48. For an overview of the international debate, see Anderson, Perry, In the Tracks of Historical Materialism (London: Verso, 1983) and Thompson, E. P., The Poverty of Theory and Other Essays (London: The Merlin Press, 1978).

14. On the Chicago Boys see Valdés, Juan Gabriel, Pinochet's Economists: The Chicago School in Chile (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995) and Silva, Patricio, In the Name of Reason: Technocrats and Politics in Chile (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2008). Former minister of Pinochet and the mastermind behind the labor and social security reforms, José Piñera Echeñique, summarized his ideas about labor reform in La revolución laboral en Chile (Santiago: Zig-Zag, 1990).

15. Lavín, Joaquín, Chile, la revolución silenciosa (Santiago: Zig-Zag, 1987); Tironi, Eugenio, Chile, los silencios de la revolución (Santiago: Editorial La Puerta Abierta, 1988).

16. On the impact of exile: Angell, Alan and Carstairs, Susan, “The Exile Question in Chilean Politics,” Third World Quarterly 9:1 (1987): 148–67.

17. For an overview of the history of the Nueva Historia: Miguel Antonio Fuentes Muñoz, “Gabriel Salazar y la “nueva historia” elementos para una polémica desde el marxismo clásico (Exposición y Debate)” (BA thesis, Universidad de Chile, 2007).

18. Gabriel Salazar is one of the most influential and emblematic historians of the first generation of Nueva Historia. A professor at the University of Chile at the time of the military coup, he was fired, detained, tortured, and exiled. In the United Kingdom, he obtained a Ph.D. at the University of Hull in 1984, and his dissertation, “Entrepreneurs and Peons in the Transition to Industrial Capitalism, Chile 1820–1878,” was influenced by British new labor history represented by E.P. Thompson and Eric Hobsbawm. He returned to Chile in 1985 and joined the NGO SUR. In 1992, he was reinstated as a professor at the Universidad de Chile, and he received the National History Award (the country's most important recognition for historians) in 2006.

19. Salazar, Gabriel, El poder nuestro de cada día: pobladores. Historia. Acción Popular Constituyente (Santiago: LOM, 2017).

20. For an overview of this debate, see Grez, Sergio, “Escribir la historia de los sectores populares ¿con o sin política incluida? A propósito de dos miradas a la historia social (Chile, siglo XIX),” Política 44 (2005): 1731.

21. Among Sergio Grez's most important books are: De la “regeneración del pueblo” a la huelga general. Génesis y evolución histórica del movimiento popular en Chile (1810–1910) (Santiago: Centro de Investigaciones Diego Barros Arana, 1998) and Los anarquistas y el movimiento obrero. La alborada de “la Idea” en Chile, 1893–1915 (Santiago, LOM Ediciones, 2007). In an edited collection of documents, Grez demonstrates the longer history of the social question and the influence of labor organizations on the debate, Grez, La ‘cuestión social’ en Chile. Ideas y debates precursores (Santiago: Dirección de Bibliotecas, Archivos y Museos, Centro de Investigaciones Diego Barros Arana, 1997).

22. Some of the most influential historians working on labor and social topics at the time were: José Bengoa, Eduardo Devés, Mario Garcés, Sergio González, María Angélica Illanes, Luis Ortega, and the Argentine historian Luis Alberto Romero.

23. Benavides, Leopoldo, “Historia oral: problemas y perspectivas,” Documento de trabajo (Flacso-Chile) 220 (1983). He published a revised version of this document a few years later, La historia oral en Chile,” Material de discusión (Flacso-Chile) 107 (1987).

24. Garcés, Mario, “ECO, las ONGs y la lucha contra la dictadura militar en Chile. Entre lo académico y lo militante,” Revista Izquierdas 3:7 (2010): 18.

25. Green, James, Taking History to Heart: The Power of the Past in Building Social Movements (Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 2000).

26. See for example ECO, FOCH, CTCH, CUT: Las centrales unitarias en la historia del sindicalismo chileno (Santiago: ECO, 1988).

27. In 1989, Emilia Viotti Da Costa, Barbara Weinstein, Perry Anderson, Hobart A. Spalding, and June Nash debated the past and future of Latin American Labor History in a special issue of International Labor and Working-Class History, 36 (1989).

28. Loveman, Brian, Struggle in the Countryside: Politics and Rural Labor in Chile, 1919–1973 (Bloomington, IN, and London: Indiana University Press, 1976).

29. DeShazo, Peter, “The Valparaíso Maritime Strike of 1903 and the Development of a Revolutionary Labor Movement in Chile,” Journal of Latin American Studies 2:1 (1979): 145–68 and Urban Workers and Labor Unions in Chile, 1902–1927 (Madison, WI: Wisconsin University Press, 1983); Winn, Peter, Weavers of Revolution: The Yarur Workers and Chile's Road to Socialism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986). Winn's Weavers of Revolution was translated into a Spanish edition in 2004, and a Spanish edition of DeShazo's book was published in 2007.

30. Winn, Peter, “Oral History and the Factory Study: New Approaches to Labor History,” Latin American Research Review 14:2 (1979): 130–40 and El Taylorismo: la gran huelga de Yarur, 1962,” Proposiciones 19 (1990): 202–23.

31. Salazar, Gabriel, Editorial, Proposiciones 19 (1990): 716.

32. See for example Vallejos, Julio Pinto, Trabajos y rebeldías en la pampa salitrera. El ciclo del salitre y la reconfiguración de las identidades populares (1850–1900) (Santiago: Editorial Universidad de Santiago, 1998). His publications are numerous, as are the themes that he has researched and published. Pinto received the National History Award in 2016.

33. See for example the academic production of Jorge Rojas Flores and Juan Carlos Yáñez.

34. Some of the labor histories published in English since the 1990s are: Hutchinson, Elizabeth Q., Labors Appropriate to their Sex. Gender, Labor and Politics in Urban Chile, 1900–1930 (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2001); Klubock, Thomas, Contested Communities: Class, Gender, and Politics in Chile's El Teniente Copper Mines, 1904–1951 (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1998); Pavilack, Jody, Mining for the Nation: The Politics of Chile's Coal Communities from the Popular Front to the Cold War (University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2011); Silva, J. Pablo, “The Origins of White-Collar Privilege in Chile; Arturo Alessandri, Law 6020 and the Pursuit of a Corporatist Consensus, 1933–1938,” Labor: Studies in the Working Class History of the Americas 3:1 (2006): 87112; Tinsman, Heidi, Buying into the Regime: Grapes and Consumption in Cold War Chile and the United States (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2014); and Vergara, Ángela, Copper Workers, International Business, and Domestic Politics in Cold-War Chile (College Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2008). More recent work on working-class culture includes: Elsey, Brenda, Citizens and Sportsmen: Fútbol and Politics in 20th century Chile (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2011) and The Independent Republic of Football: The Politics of Neighborhood Clubs in Santiago, Chile, 1948–1960,” Journal of Social History 42:3 (2009): 605–30.”

35. Gaudichaud, Franck, Poder popular y cordones industriales. Testimonios sobre el movimiento popular urbano, 1970–73 (Santiago: LOM, 2004). In a similar line of analysis, it is also noteworthy the research of Brazilian scholar Márcia Carolina de Oliveira Cury, “O protagonismo popular: experiências de classe e movimentos sociais na construcao do socialismo chileno (1964–1973)” (Ph.D. diss., Campinas, Brazil, 2013) and also Soto, Sandra Castillo, Cordones industriales: nuevas formas de sociabilidad obrera y organización política popular (Chile, 1970–1973) (Concepción: Escaparate, 2009).

36. The most groundbreaking work on dictatorship has been in the areas of collective memory, human rights, and gender. The most influential work on the Pinochet dictatorship and memory remains Steve Stern's trilogy, The Memory Box of Pinochet's Chile, 3 vols. (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2004–2010).

37. Throughout the 1960s, scholars from Latin America, the United States, and Europe visited, worked, and conducted research in Chilean universities. For example, the School of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell University had a special collaboration agreement with the University of Chile's Institute for Industrial Relations (INSORA). Some of these collaborations were reflected in the publication of collaborative studies. For example: Morris, James and Oyaneda, Roberto, Afiliación y finanzas sindicales en Chile, 1932–1959 (Santiago: INSORA, 1962) and Torcuato Di Tella, Lucien Brams, Jean-Daniel Reynaud, and Touraine, Alain, Sindicato y comunidad: dos tipos de estructura sindical latinoamericana (Buenos Aires: Editorial del Instituto, 1967).

38. Historian Jorge Barría was notable for looking at labor unions and confederations throughout the twentieth century, although to some his approach, based on the readings of official documents, was too institutional and top down. See for example: Barría, Jorge, Los sindicatos de la Gran Minería del Cobre (Santiago: INSORA, 1970); El movimiento obrero en Chile (Santiago: Universidad Técnica del Estado, 1971); and Historia de la CUT (Santiago: Ediciones Pla, 1971).

39. Francisco Zapata received his Ph.D. in Sociology in June 1970. He worked under the guidance of Alain Touraine at the École des Hautes Etudes in Paris. See: Contreras, Oscar F., “Una ruta hacia la sociología del trabajo. Entrevista con Francisco Zapata,” Frontera Norte 6:12 (1994): 131–49. See also, Zapata, Francisco, Hacia una sociología latinoamericana del trabajo (Mérida: Ediciones de la Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, 2010).

40. See the many publications of Jacques Chonchol and Solon Barraclaogh among others and the studies published by ICIRA (Instituto de Capacitación e Investigación Para la Reforma Agraria).

41. In the 1960s–1970s, historians also started looking at the countryside, but focusing mostly on the colonial and the nineteenth century. See for example, Bauer, Arnold, Chilean Rural Society: From the Spanish Conquest to the 1930 (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1975) and Góngora, Mario, Origen de los inquilinos de Chile Central (Santiago: Universidad de Chile, 1960).

42. Bengoa, José, “25 años de estudios rurales,” Sociologias (Porto Alegre) 5:10 (2003): 3698.

43. In the 1980s, work surveys (encuestas de empleo) illustrated the dramatic change in the labor market and the process of de-industrialization. See, for example, the work of Javier Martínez and Eugenio Tironi on economic modernization and the many publications of PREALC (Programa Regional del Empleo en América Latina y el Caribe) and PET (Programa de Economía del Trabajo).

44. The list of authors is long, but some of the most emblematic and influential labor sociologists writing in and about the 1980s are: Manuel Barrera, Guillermo Campero, Gonzalo de la Maza, Gonzalo Falabella, Patricio Frías, Jaime Ruiz-Tagle, José Antonio Valenzuela, J. Samuel Valenzuela, and Francisco Zapata. The most important Chilean authors writing about the transformation of the countryside are José Bengoa, Jorge Echeñique, and Sergio Gómez.

45. Sergio Gómez, “La organización campesina en Chile. Trayectoria y perspectivas,” Documento de trabajo CED (1986, 1987); Campos, Luis Enrique Salinas, “Trayectoria de la organización sindical campesina,” Documento de Trabajo AGRA 1 (1985).

46. Some of the papers were published in the Boletín de Estudios Latinoamericanos y del Caribe 31 (1981).

47. See, for example: Barrera, Manuel and Falabella, Gonzalo, Sindicatos bajo regímenes militares: Argentina, Brasil, Chile (Santiago, CES, 1989); J. Samuel Valenzuela and Jeffrey Goodwin, “Labor Movements under Authoritarian Regimes,” a colloquium report published as a Harvard University Center for European Studies Monograph on Europe, # 6, 1983.

48. Drake, Paul, Labor Movements and Dictatorships: The Southern Cone in Comparative Perspective (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996) and El movimiento obrero en Chile: de la Unidad Popular a La Concertación,” Revista de Ciencia Política 23 (2003): 148–58.

49. Two recent theses from the University of Chile have looked at the topic from a comparative angle, see: Emilia Gambardella, “Trabajando por la libertad y la democracia: el movimiento sindical y las dictaduras: Chile (1973–1988) y Bolivia (1964–1982)” (Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Ciencias Histórias, 2010) and Ana López Dietz, “Desarticulación y resistencia: movimiento obrero y sindicalismo en dictadura: Chile y Argentina, 1973–1983.” (Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Filosofía y Humanidades, Magister en Estudios Latinoamericanos, 2013.). See also, de Giorgi, Álvaro and Dominzain, Susana. Respuestas sindicales en Chile y Uruguay bajo las dictaduras y en los inicios de la democratización (Montevideo: Universidad de la República, 2000).

50. Angell, Alan, “Union and Workers in Chile During the 1980s,” in The Struggle for Democracy in Chile, 1982–1990, Drake, Paul W. and Jaksić, Iván, eds. (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1991) and Politics and the Labour Movement in Chile (London: Oxford University Press, 1972).

51. Most of these studies provided a general view of the labor movement and working conditions. One of the exception is Francisco Zapata, who demonstrated how economic restructuring transformed and eroded the traditional source of power of copper labor unions. Zapata, Francisco, “Las relaciones entre la junta militar y los trabajadores chilenos, 1973–1978,” Foro Internacional 20:2 (1979): 191219.

52. Frank, Volker, “The Elusive Goal in Democratic Chile: Reforming the Pinochet Labor Legislation,” Latin American Politics and Society 44:1 (2002): 3568 and Politics Without Policy: The Failure of Social Concertation in Democratic Chile, 1990–2000,” in Victims of the Chilean Miracle: Workers and Neoliberalism in the Pinochet Era, 1973–2002, ed. Winn, Peter (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2004), 71124.

53. Kay, Cristóbal, “Algunas reflexiones sobre los etudios Rurales en América Latina,” Íconos 29 (2007): 3150.

54. This a long and rich scholarship. A good place to start are the many publications of José Bengoa.

55. For a discussion of the importance of communities in labor history see Fontes, Paulo, Migration and the Making of Industrial Sao Paulo (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2016).

56. An interesting contribution to the study of working-class communities is Brenda Elsey's research on soccer clubs. See: Elsey, Citizens and Sportsmen: Fútbol and Politics in Twentieth-Century Chile and The Independent Republic of Football: The Politics of Neighborhood Clubs in Santiago, Chile, 1948–1960,” Journal of Social History 42:3 (2009): 605–30.”

57. In the midst of Chile 1960s housing crisis and growing urban movement, urban studies became an important field. One influential figure was Spanish Sociologist Manuel Castell, who taught at FLACSO-Chile between 1966–68. Since 1970, the academic journal EURE (Revista Latinoamericana de Estudios Urbanos Regionales), published by the School of Urban Studies at the Catholic University in Santiago, has reflected the main debates in the field.

58. See for example, Espinoza, Vicente, Para una historia de los pobres de la ciudad (Santiago: Ediciones Sur, 1988).

59. Touraine, Alain, “Introducción al método de la intervención sociológica,” Estudios Sociológicos (Mexico) IV 11 (1986): 197213.

60. Dubet, François, Tironi, Eugenio, Valenzuela, Vicente, and Valenzuela, Eduardo, Pobladores. Luttes sociales et démocratie au Chili (Paris: L'Harmattan, 1989); Espinoza, Vicente, “Historia social de la acción colectiva urbana: los pobladores de Santiago, 1957–1987,” Revista EURE—Revista de Estudios Urbanos Regionales 24:72 (1998): 7184.

61. Garcés, Mario, Tomando su sitio: El movimiento de pobladores de Santiago, 1957–1970 (Santiago: LOM, 2002).

62. Garcés, Mario and Leiva, Sebastián, El golpe en La Legua (Santiago: LOM, 2012).

63. Schneider, Cathy L., Shantytown Protest in Pinochet's Chile (Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1995), Oxhorn, Philip, Organizing Civil Society: The Popular Sectors and the Struggle for Democracy in Chile (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995).

64. Bruey, Alison J., Bread, Justice, and Liberty: Grassroots Activism and Human Rights in Pinochet's Chile (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, forthcoming 2018). See also: Cofré, Boris, Campamento Nueva La Habana: El MIR y el Movimiento de Pobladores, 1970–1973 (Concepción: Ed. Escaparate, 2007) and “El sueño de la casa propia”. Estado, empresarios y trabajadores ante el problema de la vivienda y urbanización residencial. Santiago de Chile, c.1952–1973” (Ph.D. diss., Universidad Catolica, 2016).

65. Murphy, Edward, For a Proper Home: Housing Rights in the Margins of Urban Chile, 1960–2010 (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2015).

66. Joel Stillerman's publications are numerous. See: “From solidarity to survival: Transformations in the culture and styles of mobilization of Chilean metalworkers under democratic and authoritarian regimes, 1945–1995,” (Ph.D. diss., New School, 1998); Continuidades, rupturas y coyunturas en la transformación de los obreros de MADECO, S.A., 1973–2003,” Revista Política 44 (2005): 165–96; “Disciplined Workers and Avid Consumers: Neoliberal Policy and the Transformation of Work and Identity among Chilean Metalworkers,” in Victims of the Chilean Miracle, 164–208.

67. One welcomed contribution to decenter Chilean urban social history is Brito, Alejandra and Ganter, Rodrigo, “Ciudad Obrera: persistencias y variaciones en las significaciones del espacio. El caso de la siderúrgica Huachipato y su influencia en el desarrollo urbano del Gran Concepción,” EURE 40:121 (2014): 2953. Marian Schlotterbeck's forthcoming book also looks at working-class communities and the influence of the MIR in the Greater Concepción. Beyond the Vanguard: Everyday Revolutionaries in Allende's Chile (University of California Press: LA & Berkeley, CA, forthcoming).

68. Especially noteworthy was the influence of Chilean sociologist and feminist scholar Julieta Kristeva (1936–1985). One of her most important works is Ser política en Chile (Santiago: FLACSO, 1982); see also Tejiendo rebeldías: escritos feministas de Julieta Kirkwood (Santiago: CEM, 1987).

69. Teresa Valdés, “Las mujeres y la dictadura militar en Chile,” Documento de Trabajo (FLACSO), 1987. See also, Valenzuela, Maria Elena, “The Evolving Roles of Women under Military Rule,” in The Struggle for Democracy in Chile, eds. Drake, Paul and Jaksić, Iván (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1991), 161–87; and Todas ibamos a ser reinas: la mujer en el Chile militar (Santiago: CESOC, 1987).

70. Valdés, Ximena et al. , Historias testimoniales de mujeres del campo (Santiago: CEM, 1983).

71. See, for example, Mundo de mujer: continuidad y cambio (Santiago: CEM, 1988).

72. y Paulina Saball, Andrea Rodó, “Mujer popular, familia y cesantía”, Proposiciones 9 (1983): 3954; Raczynski, Dagmar and Serrano, Claudia, “La cesantía: impacto sobre la mujer y la familia popular,” Colección Estudios CIEPLAN 14 (1984): 6197.

73. Recent studies have explored the impact of state ideas of gender and family: Thomas, Gwynn, Contesting Legitimacy in Chile: Familial Ideas, Citizenship, and Political Struggle, 1970–1990 (College Park, PA: Penn State University Press, 2012) and Mooney, Jadwiga E. Pieper, The Politics of Motherhood: Maternity and Women's Rights in Twentieth-Century Chile (Pittsburgh, PA: Pittsburgh University Press, 2009). For a long-term historical overview of these issues see Rosemblatt, Karin, Gendered Compromises: Political Cultures and the State in Chile, 1920–1950 (Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 2000).

74. Valdés, Teresa and Weirstein, Marisa, Mujeres que sueñan: la organización de pobladores en Chile, 1973–1989 (Santiago: FLACSO, 1993). See Teresa Valdés's previous book, Venid, benditas de mi Padre: Las pobladoras, sus rutinas y sus sueños (Santiago: FLACSO, 1988).

75. Adams, Jacqueline, Surviving Dictatorship: A Work of Visual Sociology (New York and London: Routledge, 2012); Barbera, Rosemary, “Community Remembering: Fear and Memory in a Chilean Shantytown,” Latin American Perspectives 36:5 (2009): 7288; Dandavati, Annie, Engendering Democracy in Chile (New York: Peter Lang, 2005).

76. Klubock, Thomas M., “Writing the History of Women and Gender in Twentieth-Century Chile,” The Hispanic American Historical Review 81:3–4 (2001): 493518.”

77. Godoy, Lorena et al. , Disciplina y desacato. Construcción de identidad en Chile, siglos XIX y XX (Santiago: SUR/CEDEM, 1995).

78. Zárate, María Soledad and Godoy, Lorena, Análisis crítico de los estudios históricos del trabajo femenino en Chile (Santiago: CEM, 2005).

79. Tinsman, Heidi, “Politics of Gender and Consumption in Authoritarian Chile, 1973–1990: Women Agricultural Workers in the Fruit-Export Industry,” Latin American Research Review 41, no. 3 (2006): 731 and “More Than Victims: Women Agricultural Workers and Social Change in Rural Chile,” in Victims of the Chilean Miracle, 261–97.

80. Ximena Valdés Subercaseaux, has published on this topic since the mid 1980s. See for example: Femenización del mercado agrícola: las temporeras” in Mundo de mujer: cambio y continuidad (Santiago: CEM, 1991), 388430; Modernización, democratización y derechos ciudadanos: una mirada a la vida privada de los temporeros de la fruta” en Escrituras de la diferencia sexual, ed. Olea, Raquel (Santiago: LOM/La Morada, 2000), 109–31.

81. Recent research on street vendors, the informal economy, and contract workers also illustrate these issues. See, for example: Rodrigo Assef Saavedra, “Los trabajadores informales urbanos en Chile neoliberal: El caso de los trabajadores ambulantes en Santiago 1978–2004,” (BA thesis, Universidad de Chile, 2005); Olga Cárcamo Soto, “Historias de vida, trabajo, lucha y esfuerzo: Las trabajadoras del sector vestuario en Santiago, 1970–2000” (BA thesis, Universidad de Chile, 2005). For a broader perspective on labor resistance see Melissa Mann, “The History of Labor Resistance in Chile, 1973–1989,” (MA thesis, University of New Mexico, 2001).

82. In addition to the article included in Victims of the Chilean Miracle, see: Klubock, Thomas M., “Copper Workers, Organized Labor, and Popular Protest under Military Rule in Chile, 1973–1986,” International Labor and Working-Class History 52 (1997): 106–33, and see note 67 for Joel Stillerman's publications.”

83. Klubock, Thomas, La Frontera: Forests and Ecological Conflict in Chile's Frontier Territory (Durham, NC: Duke University Press: 2015). See also, Andrew Gergart, “An Environmental and Social History of the Chilean Salmon Farming Industry, 1976–2009” (Ph.D. diss., Stanford University, 2014).

84. Gómez, Rodrigo Araya, “Cambios y continuidades en el movimiento sindical chileno en los años 80. El caso del Comando Nacional de Trabajadores,” Historia 1 (2014): 1137; Movimiento sindical en dictadura: Fuentes para una historia del sindicalismo en Chile, 1973–1990 (Santiago: Universidad Alberto Hurtado, 2015); and Organizaciones sindicales en Chile. De la resistencia a la política de los consensos: 1983–1994 (Santiago: Ediciones Universidad Finis Terrae, 2015). For the early period of the dictatorship, see: Vallejos, Rolando Álvarez, “¿Represión o integración? La política sindical del régimen militar: 1973–1980,” Historia (Santiago) 2 (2010): 325–55.

85. Winn, Peter, “Global Labor History: The Future of the Field?,” International Labor and Working-Class History 82 (2012): 8591.

86. Jones, No Trucks.

87. Tinsman, Heidi, Buying into the Regime: Grapes and Consumption in Cold War Chile and the United States (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2014).

88. Some of the most important recompilation of documents are: Gómez, Rodrigo Araya, Movimiento sindical en dictadura: Fuentes para una historia del sindicalismo en Chile, 1973–1990 (Santiago: Universidad Alberto Hurtado, 2014) and Lira, Elizabeth and Rojas, Hugo, Libertad sindical y derechos humanos: análisis de los informes del Comité de Libertad Sindical de la O.I.T., 1973–1990 (Santiago: LOM, Univ. Alberto Hurtado, Centro de Investigaciones Diego Barros Arana, Dirección Bibliotecas, Archivos y Museos, 2009).

89. See, for example: Aguilera, José Manuel Bravo, De Carranco a Carrán (Santiago: LOM, 2012); Baltra, Mireya, Mireya Baltra: del kiosko al Ministerio del Trabajo (Santiago, LOM: 2014); Bascuñán, Fernando Echeverría and Hernández, Jorge Rojas, Añoranzas, sueños, realidades: Dirigentes sindicales hablan de la transición (Santiago de Chile: Ediciones SUR, 1992); Echeverría, Mónica, Anti-Historia de un luchador Clotario Blest (Santiago: LOM, 2013).

90. See the video “An nou pal” (conversemos) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OvfdPCAX6PE.

The writing of this article was made possible by a course release provided by the History Department at California State University of Los Angeles in spring 2017. I thank Larissa Corrêa for inviting me to present an earlier version of this article at the “Seminário Internacional Mundos do Trabalho e Ditaduras no Cone Sul” in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in October 2015. I also thank Peter Winn for encouraging me to write this article and for his comments and suggestions.

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