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Asian Indentured Labor in the Age of African American Emancipation

  • Zach Sell (a1)

Abstract

This article examines transnational connections between African American emancipation in the United States and Chinese and Indian indenture within the British Empire. In an era of social upheaval and capitalist crisis, planters and colonial officials envisioned coolies as a source of uninterrupted plantation labor. This vision was often bound to the conditions of African American emancipation. In British Honduras, colonial officials sought to bring emancipated African Americans to the colony as labor for sugar plantations. When this project failed, interest turned toward indentured Chinese labor managed by white planters from the U.S. South. In India’s North-Western Provinces, the outbreak of famine came to be seen as a “kindred distress” to the crisis in Lancashire’s textile industry. Unemployed English factory workers were seen as suffering from famine due to the scarcity of slave-produced cotton, just as colonial subjects suffered from scarcity of food. While some weavers in the North-Western Provinces were taken into the coolie trade, the emigration of unemployed Lancashire weavers was looked to as a possible alternative to indenture. Drawing upon archives in Australia, Belize, Britain, India, and the United States, this article explores connections between seemingly disparate histories. By focusing upon their interrelation, this article locates the formation of crisis not in raw materials, but rather within a transnational struggle over racialized labor exploitation, or what W.E.B. Du Bois called the “dark and vast sea of human labor.”

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References

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NOTES

1. Bois, W.E.B. Du, Black Reconstruction in America (New York, 1935), 1516 . For works that elaborate on this insight, see Lowe, Lisa, Intimacies of Four Continents (Durham, NC, 2015); Jung, Moon-Ho, “Black Reconstruction and Empire”, South Atlantic Quarterly 111 (2013): 465–71; Greene, Julie, “The Wages of Empire: Capitalism, Expansionism, and Working-Class Formation”, in Making the Empire Work: Labor and United States Imperialism, ed. Bender, Daniel E. and Lipman, Jana K. (New York, 2015), 3558 .

2. Jung, Moon-Ho, Coolies and Cane: Race, Labor, and Sugar in the Age of Emancipation (Baltimore, 2006), 109 .

3. Ibid., 5.

4. Metcalf, Thomas, Imperial Connections: India in the Indian Ocean Arena, 1860–1920 (Berkeley, CA, 2007), 136. On racial reading of Asian labor as “cheap,” see Day, Iyko, Alien Capital: Asian Racialization and the Logic of Settler Colonial Capitalism (Durham, NC, 2016), 78 . For overviews of labor transformations in the context of black emancipation, see Jaynes, Gerald, Branches without Roots: Genesis of the Black Working Class in the American South (Oxford, 1986), 374 ; Foner, Eric, “Reconstruction and the Crisis of Free Labor”, in Politics and Ideology in the Age of the Civil War (Oxford, 1980), 119–57.

5. Wray, Leonard, “The Culture and Preparation of Cotton in the United States of America”, Journal of the Society of Arts, 7 (1858): 83 .

6. Fox-Genovese, Elizabeth and Genovese, Eugene D., Slavery in White and Black: Class and Race in the Southern Slaveholders’ New World Order (Cambridge, 2008), 97152 .

7. Hall, Catherine, “Going A-Trolloping: Imperial Man Travels the Empire”, in Gender and Imperialism, ed. Midgley, Clare (Manchester, 1998), 180199 . Logan, Frenise A., “A British East India Company Agent in the United States, 1839–1840”, Agricultural History 48 (1974): 267–76. English factory owners such as Henry Ashworth also traveled to the U.S. South, making such comparisons. Ashworth, Henry, A Tour in the United States, Cuba and Canada (London, 1861), e.g., 101. Other British travelers who published about plantation relations in the American South include Captain Hall, Basil, Travels in North America in the Years 1827 and 1828, 3 vols. (Edinburgh, 1829). Mitchell, D.W., Ten Years in the United States: Being an Englishman's View of Men and Things in the North and South (London, 1862). Roles, John, Inside Views of Slavery on Southern Plantations (New York, 1864). Majoribanks, Erskine, Queensland: A Wide Field for the Safe and Profitable Investment of British Capital, More Particularly in the Growth of Cotton (Edinburgh, 1865), 7 .

8. Roediger, David, “White Slavery, Abolition, and Coalition: Languages of Race, Class, and Gender”, in Colored White: Transcending the Racial Past (Berkeley, CA, 2002), 108 . Rugemer, Edward, The Problem of Emancipation: The Caribbean Roots of the American Civil War (Baton Rouge, 2008), 25876 . Karp, Mathew, “King Cotton, Emperor Slavery: Antebellum Slaveholders and the World Economy”, in The Civil War as Global Conflict: Transnational Meanings of the American Civil War, ed. Gleeson, David T. and Lewis, Simon (Columbia, SC, 2014), 47 .

9. Pollard, Edward Alfred, Black Diamonds Gathered in the Darkey Homes of the South (New York, 1859), 9 .

10. Ruffin, Edmund, Diary of Edmund Ruffin: October 1856–April 1861, vol. 1, ed. Scarborough, William Kauffman (Baton Rouge, 1972), 97, 99. Sanyal, Ram Gopal, Reminiscences and Anecdotes, vol. 1 (Calcutta, 1894), 39 [quoted in Kling, Blair, The Blue Mutiny: The Indigo Disturbances in Bengal, 1859–62 (Philadelphia, 1966), 110 ].

11. Faust, Drew Gilpin, James Henry Hammond and the Old South: A Design for Mastery (Baton Rouge, 1985), 122–23. Olcott, H.S., “Sugar from the Sorgho”, Southern Cultivator 15 (1857): 142 . Wray first spoke in New York before working to introduce sorghum on the plantations of Hammond, of Cassius Clay in Louisville, Kentucky, and of a third planter in Georgia. “Sugar from the African Sorghum,” Charleston Mercury, April 14, 1857. “The New Sugar Cane,” Charleston Mercury, June 16, 1857.

12. On the management of racial difference, see Roediger, David and Esch, Elizabeth, The Production of Difference: Race and the Management of Labor in U.S. History (New York, 2012). Lowe, Lisa, Immigrant Acts: On Asian American Cultural Politics (Durham, NC, 1996), 2728 .

13. Wray, Leonard, The Practical Sugar Planter; A Complete Account of the Cultivation and Manufacture of the Sugar-Cane (London, 1848).

14. Wray, Leonard, “Culture and Manufacture of Sugar”, De Bow's Review 12 (1852): 646 .

15. Amin, Shahid, Sugarcane and Sugar in Gorakhpur: An Inquiry into Peasant Production for Capitalist Enterprise in Colonial India (Delhi, 1984), 28 .

16. Proceedings of the Select Committee on Sugar and Coffee Planting, February 14, 1848 (London, 1848), 45 , 58–62, 72–74.

17. James Henry Hammond Papers, May 1, 1857, Reel 1, 606–607. Records of Ante-Bellum Southern Plantations (RA-BSP). Series A, Part 1, Selections from the South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina.

18. Mathew, W. M., “Edmund Ruffin and the Demise of the Farmers’ Register ”, The Virginia Magazine 94 (1986): 324 .

19. Ruffin, Diary, 74.

20. Wray, The Practical Sugar Planter, 83–84. Ruffin, Diary, 103–106, 147–48. The three would also meet at a gathering of the U.S. Agricultural Society in Washington, D.C., on January 15, 1858.

21. James Henry Hammond, Speech: Delivered at Barnwell Court House, South Carolina (October 29, 1858), 47. Jung, Coolies and Cane, 20, 28–30. Matthew Karp, “‘This Vast Southern Empire’: The South and the Foreign Policy of Slavery, 1833–1861” (Ph.D. diss., University of Pennsylvania, 2011), 320–28.

22. Wray, “Culture and Preparation of Cotton,” 83.

23. Jaynes, Branches without Roots, 58.

24. P. Carnegy, “Appendix D: Official Papers Regarding Native Cotton Manufactures,” in Report of the Committee of the Bengal Chamber of Commerce, January 24, 1864 (Calcutta, 1864), XLVIII. British Library, London (BL).

25. Dadabhai Naoroji, “The Supply of Cotton,” The Cotton Supply Reporter, February 1, 1861.

26. For emphasis upon raw material crisis, see Beckert, Sven, Empire of Cotton: A Global History (New York, 2014), 246 ; Perelman, Michael, Marx's Crises Theory: Scarcity, Labor, and Finance (New York, 1987), 4254 . For alternative approaches, see Henderson, William Otto, The Lancashire Cotton Famine (New York, 1969 [1934]), 1112 , especially, 11n1; Wright, Gavin, “World Demand for Cotton during the Nineteenth Century: Reply”, Journal of Economic History 39 (1979): 1024 . Wright, Gavin, The Political Economy of the Cotton South: Households, Markets, and Wealth in the Nineteenth Century (New York, 1978), 9697 . See also Marx, Karl, “A London Workers’ Meeting”, Marx and Engels Collected Works, 1861–64, vol. 19 (New York, 1984), 153 . First published in Die Presse February 2, 1862. Following a January 30, 1862, meeting of the Manchester Chamber of Commerce, Marx revised his opinion to argue that the textile industry crisis was not the result of the blockade of southern ports or the American protectionist Morrill tariff, but rather “steadily continuing overproduction” since 1858, which corresponded with a “glutting of the Asian markets.” Karl Marx, “On the Cotton Crisis,” MECW, 19, 160–62. First published in Die Presse, February 8, 1862.

27. Factory owners who were members of the Cotton Supply Association were most prominent in these efforts. On the Central Provinces, see Satya, Laxman D., Cotton and Famine in Berar, 1850–1900 (Delhi, 1997), 139–42, 15861. Beckert, Empire of Cotton, 29397, 299302.

28. “Report on Deputation of the Manchester Chamber of Commerce to Viscount Palmerston,” February 22, 1864; March 9, 1864. Manchester Chamber of Commerce Proceedings, 18581867, Manchester Central Library (MCL). Fifty-First Annual Report of the Manchester Chamber of Commerce for the Year, 1871, January 29, 1872, 47 (MCL).

29. “Appendix M: Presentation of Testimonial to Colonel R. Baird Smith,” September 24, 1861, in The Committee of the Bengal Chamber of Commerce from 1 May to 31 October 1861 (Calcutta, 1861), LXXV (BL).

30. Smith, R. Baird, Report on Commercial Condition of the North West Provinces of India, (East India) Parliamentary Papers 29 (1862), 3 . On the impact of decreased exports to India for English manufacturers, see Meeting of the Board of Directors of the Manchester Chamber of Commerce, February 27, 1861, Manchester Chamber of Commerce Proceedings, 1858–67 (MCL).

31. Baird Smith, Report on Commercial Condition, 11.

32. Ibid., 16. See also Borpujari, G., “Indian Cottons and the Cotton Famine, 1860–65”, The Indian Economic and Social History Review 10 (1973): 3749 .

33. Report of the Revised Land Revenue Settlement of the Rohtak District of the Hissar Division in the Punjab (Lahore, 1880), 4647 .

34. Circulars for Report on Slackness in Demand”, 189, 210. Gyanendra Pandey, The Construction of Communalism in Colonial North India (Delhi, 1990), 76 . See also Mukherjee, Rudrangshu, “The Azimgarh Proclamation and Some Questions on the Revolt of 1857 in the North Western Provinces”, in Essays in Honour of Prof. S.C. Sarkar (New Delhi, 1976), 477–98.

35. Basdeo Mangru, “From Bengal to British Guiana: The Emigration of Indian Indentured Labour, 1854-–884,” (Ph.D. diss., University of London, 1981), 87.

36. Ibid., 86. Metcalf, Imperial Connections, 154, 160.

37. Holmes, W.H., Free Cotton; How and Where to Grow It (London, 1862), 13 . This argument was common later: Grierson, G.A., Colonial Emigration from the Bengal Presidency, ed. Mangru, Basdeo (Hertford, 2014 [1883]), 45 .

38. Wood, H.W.I. to Bayley, E.C., “Appendix O: Lancashire Distress Relief Fund”, in Report of the Committee of the Bengal Chamber of Commerce, July 15, 1862 (Calcutta, 1862), CCX (BL).

39. William A. Rose to governor general of India dated January 2, 1863. Home, Public, February 10, 1863, 27A. National Archives of India, Delhi (NAI). Translation of a Khurreeta from the Maha Rao Raja of Ulwar to the political agent, Ulwar, dated October 16, 1862. Foreign, Political A, December 1862, 8–10. NAI. “Distress in Lancashire: Appropriation of the Indian Famine Surplus Fund,” Observer, January 4, 1863. A Lancashire song described this transfer: “An’ th’ Indians are helpin’ an’ o; Aw reckon they're grateful for th’ past, So they'll give us a bit of a lift, For helpin’ them eawt when they'rn fast.” Laycock, Samuel, “God Bless ’Em, It Shows They'n Some Thowt”, in Lancashire Rhymes: Or, Homely Pictures of the People (Manchester, 1864), 5354 .

40. “Lancashire Distress Relief Fund,” Bengal Chamber of Commerce, CCX.

41. Oddy, D.J., “Urban Famine in Nineteenth-Century Britain: The Effects of the Lancashire Cotton Famine on Working-Class Diet and Health”, Economic History Review 36 (1983): 74 . Boyer, G.R., “Poor Relief, Informal Assistance, and Short Time During the Lancashire Cotton Famine”, Explorations in Economic History 34 (1997): 5676 . Arnold, The History of the Cotton Famine (London, 1864), 36 .

42. Smith, Baird, Report on the Famine of 1860–61, in the North-West Provinces of India, (East India) Parliamentary Papers 29 (1862): 30 .

43. Bhatia, B.M., Famines in India (Delhi, 1991), 60 . Dutt, R.C., Famines and Land Assessment in India (London, 1900), 8 . On the limits of such estimates, see Srivastava, Hari Shanker, The History of Indian Famines and Development of Famine Policy, 1858–1918 (Agra, 1968), 4647 .

44. Pandey, Construction of Communalism, 66–108. Chakrabarty, Dipesh, “Translating Life-Worlds into Labor and History”, in Dipesh Chakrabarty, Provincializing Europe: Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference (Princeton, 2000), 79 .

45. Ballantyne, Tony, “Remaking the Empire from Newgate: Wakefield's A Letter from Sydney”, in Ten Books that Shaped the British Empire, ed. Burton, Antoinette and Hofmeyr, Isabel (Durham, NC, 2014), 3233 .

46. J.S. Mill to F. Sinnett [Melbourne], October 22, 1857, in The Letters of John Stuart Mill, vol. 1, ed. Elliot, Hugh S. R. (London, 1910), 188–89.

47. Parkes, Henry, Australian Views of England: Eleven Letters Written in the Years 1861 and 1862 (London and Cambridge, 1869), 19 .

48. Evans, Raymond, “Plenty Shoot ’Em: The Destruction of Aboriginal Societies along the Queensland Frontier”, in Genocide and Settler Society: Frontier Violence and Stolen Indigenous Children in Australia, ed. Moses, D. (New York, 2004), 167–68.

49. Reynolds, Henry and May, Dawn, “Queensland”, in Contested Ground: Australian Aborigines under the British Crown, ed. Mcgrath, Ann (St. Leonards, NSW, 1995), 171 .

50. Ibid., 176.

51. Wight, George, Queensland: The Field for British Labour and Enterprise, and the Source of England's Cotton Supply (London, 1863), 101103 . See also Lancashire and Queensland Cooperative Emigration Society”, Daily News (London), January 24, 1863 .

52. Correspondence on the Cotton Famine, Showing how it Affects the Present Position and Future Prospects of the Common Interests (Manchester, 1865), 34 .

53. “The First Cotton Harvest in Queensland,” The York Herald, November 22, 1862.

54. “Anglo-Saxon,” “The Manchester Panic,” The Arthur Moreton Bay Courier, April 13, 1861.

55. Ibid.

56. Lake, Marilyn, “The White Man under Siege: New Histories of Race in the Nineteenth Century and the Advent of White Australia”, History Workshop Journal 58 (2004): 48 .

57. Lang, J.D., Queensland, Australia; A Highly Eligible Field for Emigration and the Future Cotton-Field of Great Britain, (London, 1861), 231 (from a speech delivered in 1860).

58. “The Coolie Question,” Moreton Bay Courier, April 16, 1861. Henry Jordan made this argument with particular reference to a suggestion that freed people be brought to Queensland: “An American Opinion on Queensland as a Cotton Producing Country Republished from Glasgow Morning Journal,” The Western Times (Exeter, England), April 21, 1863.

59. On the arrival of white women and children in the settler colonial imaginary, see Veracini, Lorenzo, Settler Colonialism: A Theoretical Overview (Basingstoke, 2010), vii .

60. R.G.W. Herbert to J. Broadhurst, April 11, 1861. Extra Colonial Letterbooks, (61/90), Col/P1. Queensland State Archives, Brisbane. As Herbert wrote, “I should inform you that general acquaintance with the Chinese as servants and recent circumstances arising from their presence in large number in other Australian Colonies have induced the prevalent opinion that their introduction into this colony is not desirable, and it would not be looked upon with favour by the community; but that Indian Coolies would give more satisfaction where coloured labour is required.” However, Herbert personally believed that either Chinese or Indian labor should be sought for the colony. For this belief, see Knox, Bruce, “Introduction”, in The Queensland Years of Robert Herbert, Premier (St. Lucia, 1977), 28 .

61. Herbert to Broadhurst, April 11, 1861.

62. On the development of the anticoolie trope in Victoria, see Ngai, Mae, “Chinese Gold Miners and the ‘Chinese Question’ in Nineteenth-Century California and Victoria”, Journal of American History 101 (2015): 1084 .

63. On “suitability” of coolies, Moles, I.N., “The Indian Coolie Labour Issue in Queensland”, Historical Society of Queensland Journal 5 (1957): 1347. Charles Nicholson and others to His Excellency to Sir George F. Bowen Governor of the colony of Queensland, “Memorial on the Subject of Asiatic Labor,” in Asiatic Labor (Queensland, July 30, 1861). State Library of Queensland

64. Moles, “Indian Coolie Labour,” 1348.

65. On Bazley's interest in Queensland cotton: Thomas Bazley to Henry Parkes, October 2, 1861 in Parkes Correspondences, vol. 6, 395–96. State Library of New South Wales, Sydney.

66. De Coin, Robert, History and Cultivation of Cotton and Tobacco (London, 1864), 225 , 236–37.

67. Majoribanks, Queensland.

68. Banivanua-Mar, Tracey, Violence and Colonial Dialogue (Honolulu, 2007), 76 . For connections between settler colonialism in the United States and Australia, see Moreton-Robinson, Aileen, The White Possessive: Property, Power, and Indigenous Sovereignty (Minneapolis, 2015); Wolfe, Patrick, Traces of History: Elementary Structures of Race (London, 2016), 184 .

69. Henry Jordan, Second Annual Report of the Queensland Emigration Commission, for 186263. Henry Jordan Papers. SLQ.

70. Potter, Edmund, “The Cotton Districts and Emigration”, Times (London), March 24, 1863. Karl Marx, Capital, vol. 1 (London, 1976 [1867]), 720–23.

71. Potter, “Cotton Districts.”

72. Fifth Annual Report of the Cotton Supply Association (Manchester, 1862), 20 . John Rylands Library, Manchester.

73. Roediger, David and Esch, Elizabeth, “One Symptom of Originality: Race and the Management of Labour in the History of the United States”, Historical Materialism 17 (2009): 343 .

74. Louisiana planters used similar rhetoric: Jung, Coolies and Cane, 29–40.

75. Charles Nicholson and others to Bowen, George F., “Memorial on the Subject of Asiatic Labor”, in Asiatic Labor (Queensland, dated July 30, 1861). SLQ.

76. Disagreements between the Indian and Queensland governments were also cited. See I.N. Moles, “Indian Coolie Labour,” 1349–50.

77. Henderson, Lancashire Cotton Famine, 43. Towns, Robert, South Sea Island Immigration for Cotton Culture: A Letter to the Hon. The Colonial Secretary of Queensland (Sydney, 1863).

78. “South Sea Islanders (Importation of),” August 26, 1863, in Asiatic Labor. Dated July 30, 1861. Towns complained that English labor brought to the colony had not worked hard enough and demanded wages that were too high.

79. Robert Towns to Ross Lewin, May 29, 1863, Letters by Robert Towns, 1862–1873. Robert Towns and Co. Papers, CYReel2648, 191–96. NSW.

80. Fryar, William, “The Slave Trade in Polynesia”, Sugar Cane 5 (1873): 102 . Graves, Adrian, Cane and Labour: The Political Economy of the Queensland Sugar Industry (Edinburgh, 1993), 3538 .

81. Hope, James L.A., In Quest of Coolies (London, 1872), 3, 110.

82. Bolland, O. Nigel, The Formation of a Colonial Society: Belize, from Conquest to Crown Colony (Baltimore, 1977), 174–88. On mahogany, see Bulmer-Thomas, Barbara and Bulmer-Thomas, Victor, The Economic History of Belize: From the Seventeenth Century to Post-Independence (Benque Viejo del Carmen, 2012), 97 .

83. On Maya challenges to British Honduras during the period, see Bolland, O. Nigel, “The Maya and the Colonization of Belize in the Nineteenth Century”, in Bolland, O. Nigel, Colonialism and Resistance in Belize (Benque Viejo del Carmen, 1988), 100 .

84. Majoribanks, Queensland, 7.

85. The Light of the Age left carrying with 445 men, 14 women, 16 boys, 2 girls, and 3 infants.

86. Immigration agent to Governor Austin, July 4, 1865. 89R102-103. Belize Archives and Records Services, Belmopan (BARS).

87. Bulmer-Thomas and Bulmer-Thomas, Economic History of Belize, 97.

88. Robinson, St. John, “The Chinese of Central America: Diverse Beginnings, Common Achievements”, in The Chinese in Latin America and the Caribbean, ed. Lai, Walton Look and Chee-Beng, Tan (Leiden, 2010), 107108 .

89. John Hodge to F. Rogers, August 23, 1862, 80R233. BARS. Angel Eduardo Cal, “Anglo-Maya Contact in Northern Belize: A Study of British Policy toward the Maya During the Caste War of Yucatán, 1847–72” (master's thesis, University of Calgary, 1983), 223. The Maya Hodge is particularly addressing had sought refuge in the colony during the ongoing Guerra de Castas. See Bolland, “Maya and the Colonization of Belize,” 102.

90. Page, Sebastian and Magness, Phillip, Colonization after Emancipation: Lincoln and the Movement for Black Resettlement (Columbia, MO, 2011).

91. Babcock, Charles, British Honduras: Central America, a Plain Statement to Colored People of the U.S. Who Contemplate Emigration (Salem, MA, 1863). John W. Menard to F. Seymour, August 3, 1863, 83R416 (BARS). Page and Magness, Colonization, 43–54.

92. John Hodge to Lord Lyons, July 9, 1863 (BARS). Hodge to Heriot, July 1, 1863, 85R300-01 (BARS).

93. Charles Leas to Frederick W. Seward, February 15, 1863, 9. Despatches from U.S. Consuls in Belize, 1847–1906, Reel 1, T-334. Clegern, Wayne M., British Honduras: Colonial Dead End, 1859–1900 (Baton Rouge, 1967), 1937 .

94. Moses, Wilson Jeremiah, The Golden Age of Black Nationalism, 1850–1925 (Hamden, 1978), 8689 . Forbes, Ella, “African-American Resistance to Colonization”, Journal of Black Studies 21 (1990): 210–23. Blight, David, Frederick Douglass’ Civil War: Keeping Faith in Jubilee (Baton Rouge, 1989), 122–47.

95. “Chairman of the Board of Emigration to Sir F. Rogers Bart,” Berbice Gazette and British Guiana Advertiser, June 18, 1864.

96. “Emigration to Honduras,” Liberator, March 25, 1863. Fredrickson, George, Big Enough to Be Inconsistent: Abraham Lincoln Confronts Slavery and Race (Cambridge, 2008), 114 .

97. “Emigration to Honduras,” Liberator.

98. For example, William Stuart to Earl Russell, October 18, 1862. FO 5/934. National Archives, United Kingdom.

99. “‘Tsai La (217)’ to His Mother,” 89R466. “‘Ya (434)’ to His Parents,” 89R467. “‘Huang Lui (78)’ to His Mother,” 89R468-9. BARS.

100. Robert Swinhoe to T.D. Boyd (Chief Emigration Agent, Amoy), April 18, 1866, 94R79. BARS.

101. Ibid.

102. “Allotments Stopped or Unclaimed,” 89R261-62. BARS.

103. Dr. Gahue to J. Gardiner Austin, July 24, 1866, 89R407. BARS.

104. Gahue to Austin, July 30, 1866, 89R411-12. BARS.

105. Gahue to Hodge, January 5, 1866, 89R256. BARS.

106. Gahue to Austin, July 24, 1866, 89R407-8. J.R. Longden to J.P. Grant, October 23, 1868, 98R295. BARS.

107. Edwin Adolphus to Thomas Graham, October 4, 1866, 89R494. BARS.

108. Ibid.

109. John Hodge to J. Gardiner Austin, May 3, 1866. CO 123/121. (NAUK).

110. Simmons, Donald C. Jr., Confederate Settlements in British Honduras (Jefferson, NC, 2001).

111. Register of Deaths Occurring Amongst the Immigrants of British Honduras. 107R307. BARS. Samuel McCutchon Papers, Reel 6, 247. RA-BSP. Series I, Selections from Louisiana State University.

112. Sell, Zach, “Reconstructing Plantation Dominance in British Honduras: Race and Subjection after Emancipation”, in The Transnational Significance of the American Civil War, ed. Nagler, Jörg, Doyle, Don H., and Gräser, Marcus (Basingstoke, 2016), 238–39.

113. Samuel McCutchon Papers, 315–16.

114. Ibid.

115. Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi, The Financial Foundations of the British Raj: Ideas and Interests in the Reconstruction of Indian Public Finance, 1858–72 (Hyderabad, 2005), 251 . Bandyopadhyay, Sekhar, From Plassey to Partition: A History of Modern India (Delhi, 2004), 125–26.

116. Pitcher, D.G., “Report on the System of Recruiting Labourers for the Colonies, 1882”, in Kanpur to Kolkata: Labour Recruitment for the Sugar Colonies, ed. Mangru, Basdeo (Hertford, 2015), 4344 .

117. Basdeo Mangru, “From Bengal to British India,” 68–70.

118. Kempson, M., Coolie-nama (Allahabad, 1866) (BL).

119. G.F. Forbes, “Report on Cotton in the Southern States,” (1866). Archive of the Royal Geographical Society, London.

120. Dilke, Charles Wentworth, Greater Britain: A Record of Travel in English-Speaking Countries during 1866 and 1867 (London, 1868), 15 .

121. Ibid., 18.

122. Queensland (1865), (printed pamphlets), Box 31, 45. Thomas Affleck to Henry W. Hayman, November 22, 1865, Letterbook V. 14, Box 21. Papers of Thomas Affleck. Louisiana and Lower Mississippi Valley Collection, Louisiana State University Library, Baton Rouge.

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