Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Physiological correlates in migratory noctuids: the velvetbean caterpillar as a model*

  • Abner M. Hammond (a1) and Howard W. Fescemyer (a1)

Abstract

The effects of larval population density and food quality on the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, were compared with investigations of other migratory noctuids. Crowded larvae of the velvetbean caterpillar responded with: (1) an increase in the degree of dark pigmentation; (2) a decrease in larval, pupal and adult size; (3) a prolongation of the larval stage and a decrease in weight gain in the ultimate stadium; and (4) low juvenile hormone and juvenile hormone esterase haemolymph titres.

The effects of flight, throughout a 4 hr flight period, on the haemolymph titres and whole body contents of carbohydrate and lipid are presented for the velvetbean caterpillar and discussed relative to other noctuid moths. Total carbohydrate concentration decreased during the first 30–45 min of flight, and total fatty acid concentration increased during the first 30–60 min of flight, after which it declined and stabilized at preflight levels. Lipid reserves and the small amount of lipid depletion after long periods of flight indicated that velvetbean caterpillar adults are capable of making long distance movements in which lipid is the principal flight fuel.

Juvenile hormone regulated the effect of density on larval colour, size and growth rate. Applications of juvenile hormone to crowded larvae increased the proportion of the lighter (green), larger and faster developing phase. This hormone action suggests that the juvenile hormone titre of crowded larvae is lower than that of uncrowded larvae.

Genetic differentiation among populations of velvetbean caterpillars suggests that south-central United States populations originate from overwintering populations in Mexico or south Texas. A system has been developed, using pheromone-baited bucket-type traps, to investigate the population dynamics and migration of the velvetbean caterpillar in Louisiana and Texas.

La qualité de la nourriture et la densité larvaire des populations d'Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner furent comparées avec celles d'autres noctuides migrateurs. Les larves provenant d'élevages à forte densité démontrent (1) une augmentation de la pigmentation foncée, (2) une réduction de la taille des larves, des pupes et des adultes, (3) un allongement de la période larvaire et une réduction de poids au dernier stade, et (4) de faibles concentrations d'hormone juvénile et d'estérase d'hormone juvénile dans l'hémolymphe.

Les effets d'un vol de quatre heures sur la concentration dans l'hémolymphe et le corps d'A. gemmatalis d'hydrate de carbone et de lipides sont présentés et discutés par rapport aux autres noctuides. La concentration totale en hydrate de carbone décroit au cours des 30–45 min de vol, et la concentration totale des corps gras augmente après les premiers 30–60 min de vol, puis décline et se stabilise aux niveaux prévols. Les réserves en lipides et la faible réduction des lipides suivant de longues périodes de vol indiquent que les adultes de A. gemmatalis sont capables de se déplacer sur de longues distances en utilisant les lipides comme principale source d'énergie.

L'hormone juvénile contrôle l'effet de la densité larvaire sur la couleur larvaire, la taille et le taux de croissance. L'application d'hormone juvénile sur les larves qui proviennent d'élevages de haute densité augmente la proportion de larves pâles (vertes), grosses et à développement rapide. L'action de cette hormone suggère que la concentration d'hormone juvénile chez les élevages de forte densité est plus faible que celles d'élevages à densité plus faible.

Les différences génétiques entre les populations d'A. gemmatalis suggèrent que les populations du centre sud des Etats-Unis originent de populations hivernantes du Mexique ou du sud du Texas. Un système utilisant les pièges à phéromones de type “seau” (Universal moth trap®) a été mis au point et permettra d'étudier la dynamique des populations et la migration d'A. gemmatalis en Louisiane et au Texas.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Department of Entomology, Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station, Room 402 Life Sciences Bldg., Baton Rouge, LA 70803, U.S.A.

Footnotes

Hide All
*

Approved for publication by the Director of the Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station as manuscript number 86-17-0111.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Alford, A. R. and Hammond, A. M. (1982a) Plusiinae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations in Louisiana soybean ecosystems as determined with looplure-baited traps. J. Econ. Ent. 75, 647650.
Alford, A. R. and Hammond, A. M. (1982b) Temperature modification of female sex pheromone release In Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) and Pseudoplusia includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Environ. Ent. 11, 889892.
Anazonwu, D. L. and Johnson, S. J. (1986) Effects of host and density on larval colour, size and development of the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis. Environ. Ent. 15, 779783.
Angelo, M. J. and Slansky, F. Jr (1984) Body building by insects: Trade-offs in resource allocation with particular reference to migratory species. Fla. Ent. 67, 2241.
Beenakkers, A. M. Th., van der Horst, D. J. and van Marrewijk, W. J. A. (1985) Biochemical processes directed to flight muscle metabolism. In Comprehensive Insect Physiology Biochemistry and Pharmacology (Edited by Kerkut, G. A. and Gilbert, L. I.), pp. 451486. Pergamon Press, New York.
Brown, J. J. and Chippendale, G. M. (1974) Migration of the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus: Energy sources. J. Insect Physiol. 20, 11171130.
Buschman, L. L., Whitcomb, W. H., Neal, T. M. and Mays, D. L. (1977) Winter survival and hosts of the velvetbean caterpillar in Florida. Fla. Ent. 20, 267273.
Cardé, R. T. (1979) Behavioural responses of moths to female-produced pheromones and the utilization of attractant-baited traps for population monitoring. In Movement of Highly Mobile Insects: Concepts and Methodology in Research (Edited by Rabb, R. L. and Kennedy, G. G.), pp. 286315. University Graphics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh.
Collins, F. L. and Johnson, S. J. (1985) Reproductive response of caged adult velvetbean caterpillar and soybean looper to the presence of weeds. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 14, 139149.
Conti, L. and Waddill, V. (1982) Development of velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), on several winter hosts. Environ. Ent. 11, 11121113.
Dallman, S. H. and Herman, W. S. (1978) Hormonal regulation of haemolymph lipid concentration in the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus. Gen. Comp. Endocr. 36, 142150.
Dingle, H. (1972) Migration strategies of insects. Science 175, 13271335.
Ellisor, L. O. (1942) Notes on the biology and control of the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hbn. La. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 350, 1723.
Faure, J. C. (1943a) The phases of the lesser armyworm, Laphygma exigua (Hübner). Farming sth. Africa. 18, 6978.
Faure, J. C. (1943b) Phase variation in the armyworm, Laphygma exempta (Walk.) Sci. Bull. Dep. Agric, sth. Africa No. 234.
Fescemyer, H. W. and Hammond, A. M. (1986a) Effect of density and plant age on color phase variation and development of larval velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Environ. Ent. 15, 784789.
Fescemyer, H. W. and Hammond, A. M. (1986b) Effect of larval density and plant age on adult size and biochemical composition of the migrant moth, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Environ. Ent. (in press).
Fescemyer, H. W. and Hammond, A. M. (1986c) The relationship between population density, juvenile hormone, juvenile hormone esterase and phase variation in larvae of the migrant insect, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner. J. insect Physiol. (in press).
Gatehouse, A. G. (1986) Migration in the African armyworm Spodoptera exempta: Genetic determination of migratory capacity and a new synthesis. XVII Int. Cong. Entmol. (in press). Springer-Verlag, New York.
Greene, G. L. (1979) Evidence for migration of the velvetbean caterpillar. In Movement of Highly Mobile Insects: Concepts and Methodology in Research (Edited by Rabb, R. L. and Kennedy, G. G.), pp. 406408. North Carolina State University Press, Raleigh.
Hammock, B. D. (1985) Regulation of juvenile hormone titer: Degradation. In Comprehensive Insect Physiology Biochemistry and Pharmacology (Edited by Kerkut, G. A. and Gilbert, L. I.), pp. 431472. Pergamon Press, New York.
Hammock, B. D., Abdel-AAl, Y. A. I., Hanzlik, T., Jones, D., Jones, G., Roe, R. M., Rudnicka, M., Sparks, T. C. and Wing, K. D. (1984) The role of juvenile hormone metabolism in the metamorphosis of selected Lepidoptera. In Biosynthesis, Metabolism and Mode of Action of Invertebrate Hormones (Edited by Hoffmann, J. and Porchet, M.), pp. 416425. Springer, New York.
Harrison, G. T. (1980) Dispersal polymorphisms in insects. A. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 11, 95118.
Hartstack, A. W., Lopez, J. D., Muller, R. A., Sterling, W. L., King, E. G., Witz, J. A. and Eversull, A. C. (1982) Evidence of long range migration of Heliothis zea (Boddie) into Texas and Arkansas. Southwestern Ent. 7, 188201.
Heath, R. R., Tumlinson, J. H., Leppla, N. C., McLaughlin, J. R., Dueben, B., Dundulis, E. and Guy, R. H. (1983) Identification of a sex pheromone produced by female velvetbean caterpillar moth. J. Chem. Ecol. 9, 645656.
Hintze-Podufal, C. (1978) Analyse zum Melanineinbau in das Farbmuster der Larven von Eudia pavonia (L.) (Lep., Saturnidae). Mitt. Schweiz. Ent. Ges. 51, 103106.
Imura, O. (1982) Studies on the colour variation in larvae of Ephestia kukniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Phyctidae). II. Effect of environmental factors on larval pigmentation. Appl. Entomol. Zoll. 17, 59.
Iwao, S. (1968) Some effects of grouping in lepidopterous insects. Colloq. Int. C.N.R.S. 173, 185210.
Johnson, C. G. (1969) Migration and Dispersal of Insects by Flight. Northern, London.
Johnson, S. J., Hammond, A. M. and Foil, L. D. (1983) Effect of cotton variety and age on phase variation in crowded and uncrowded larval cotton leafworms (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Bull. Ecol. Soc. Am. 64, 119.
Johnson, S. J., Foil, L. D., Hammond, A. M. and Church, G. E. (1985) Effects of environmental factors on phase variation in larval cotton leafworms, Alabama argillacea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 78, 3540.
Kaster, L. V. M. and Showers, W. B. (1982) Evidence of Spring immigration and Autumn reproductive diapause of the adult black cutworm in Iowa. Environ. Ent. 11, 306312.
Lees, A. D. (1983) The endocrine control of polymorphism in aphids, In Endocrinology of Insects (Edited by Downer, R. G. H. and Laufer, H.), pp. 369377. Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York.
Long, D. B. (1953) Effects of population density on larvae of Lepidoptera. Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 104, 543585.
Madsen, H. F. and Vakenti, J. M. (1972) Codling moth: Female-baited and synthetic pheromone traps as population indicators. Environ. Ent. 1, 554557.
Matsumoto, S., Isogai, A., Suzuki, A., Ogura, N. and Sonobe, H. (1981) Purification and properties of the melanization and reddish coloration hormone (MRCH) in the armyworm, Leucania separata (Lepidoptera). Insect Biochem. 11, 725733.
Matthée, J. J. (1945) Biochemical differences between the solitary and gregarious phases of locusts and noctuids. Bull. Ent. Res. 36, 343371.
Matthée, J. J. (1946) A study of the phases of the armyworm (Laphygma exempta Walk.). J. Ent. Soc. sth. Africa 9, 6077.
Matthée, J. J. (1947) Phase variation in the lawn caterpillar (Spodoptera abyssinia Guen.). J. Ent. Soc. sth. Africa 10, 1623.
Minks, A. D. and Dejong, D. J. (1975) Determination of spraying dates for Adoxophyes orana by sex pheromone traps and temperature recordings. J. Econ. Ent. 68, 729732.
Mitchell, E. R. (1979) Migration by Spodoptera exigua and Spodoptera frugiperda, North America style. In Movement of Highly Mobile Insects: Concepts and Methodology in Research (Edited by Rabb, R. L. and Kennedy, G. G.), pp. 386393. University Graphics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh.
Mitchell, E. R. and Heath, R. R. (1986) Pheromone trapping system for the velvetbean caterpillar (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J. Econ. Ent. 79, 289292.
Mitchell, E. R., Chalfant, R. B., Green, G. L. and Creighton, C. S. (1975) Soybean looper: populations in Florida, Georgia and South Carolina as determined with pheromone-baited BL traps. J. Econ. Ent. 68, 747–50.
Moscardi, F., Barfield, C. S. and Allen, G. E. (1981) Consumption and development of velvetbean caterpillar as influenced by soybean phenology. Environ. Ent. 10, 880884.
Muller, R. A. (1979) Synoptic weather types along the central gulf coast: variability and predictability. In Movement of Highly Mobile Insects: Concepts and Methodology in Research. (Edited by Rabb, R. L. and Kennedy, G. G.), pp. 133146. University Graphics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh.
Nijhout, H. F. and Wheeler, D. E. (1982) Juvenile hormone and the physiological basis of insect polymorphisms. Q. Rev. Biol. 57, 109133.
Ogura, N. (1975) Hormonal control of larval coloration in the armyworm, Leucania separata. J. Insect Physiol. 21, 559576.
Parencia, C. R. and Rainwater, C. F. (1964) First finding of cotton leafworm larvae in the United States, 1922–1965. J. Econ. Ent. 57, 432.
Parker, W. E. and Gatehouse, A. G. (1985a) The effect of larval rearing conditions on flight performance in females of the African armyworm, Spodoptera exempta (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Bull. Ent. Res. 75, 3547.
Parker, W. E. and Gatehouse, A. G. (1985b) Genetic factors controlling flight performance and migration in the African armyworm moth, Spodoptera exempta (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Bull. Ent. Res. 75, 4963.
Pashley, D. P. and Johnson, S. J. (1986) Genetic population structure of migratory moths: The velvetbean caterpillar (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 79, 2630.
Pashley, D. P., Johnson, S. J. and Sparks, A. N. (1985) Genetic population structure of migratory moths: The fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 78, 756762.
Pener, M. P. (1983) Endocrine aspects of phase polymorphism in locusts. In Endocrinology of Insects (Edited by Downer, R. G. H. and Laufer, H.), pp. 379394. Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York.
Peters, T. M. and Barbosa, P. (1977) Influence of population density on size, fecundity and developmental rate of insects in culture. A. Rev. Ent. 22, 431450.
Rankin, M. A. and Singer, M. C. (1984) Insect movement: Mechanisms and effects. In Ecological Entomology (Edited by Huffaker, C. D. and Rabb, R. L.), pp. 185216. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Rivnay, E. and Meisner, J. (1966) The effects of rearing conditions on the immature stages and adults of Spodoptera littoralis (Biosd.). Bull. Ent. Res. 56, 623634.
Roelofs, W. L. (1979) Pheromones and other chemical attractants: pheromone trap specificity and potency, pp. 272–285. In Movement of Highly Mobile Insects: Concepts and Methodology in Research. (Edited by Rabb, R. L. and Kennedy, G. G.). University Graphics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh.
Sehnal, F. (1976) Action of juvenile hormone on different groups of insects. In The Juvenile Hormones (Edited by Gilbert, L. I.), pp. 301322. Plenum Press, New York.
Shorey, H. H. (1974) Environmental and physiological control of insect sex pheromone behaviour. In Pheromones. (Edited by Birch, M. C.), pp. 6280. American Elsevier, N.Y.
Slansky, F. Jr (1982) Insect nutrition: An adaptationist's perspective. Fla. Ent. 65, 4571.
Slansky, F. Jr, and Scriber, J. M. (1985) Food consumption and utilization. In Comprehensive Insect Physiology Biochemistry and Pharmacology (Edited by Kerkut, G. A. and Gilbert, L. I.), Vol. 4, pp. 87163. Pergamon Press, New York.
Taylor, R. A. J. (1979) A simulation model of locust migratory behaviour. J. Anim. Ecol. 48, 577602.
Teo, L-H., Fescemyer, H. W., Woodring, J. P. and Hammond, A. M. (1986) Carbohydrate and fatty acid titres during flight of the migrant noctuid moth, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner. Insect Biochem. (in Press).
Tester, C. F. (1977) Constituents of soybean cultivars differing in insect resistance. Phytochemistry 16, 18991901.
Tojo, S., Morita, M. and Hiruma, K. (1985) Effects of juvenile hormone on some phase characteristics in the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura. J. Insect Physiol. 31, 243249.
Toscano, N. C., Mueller, A. J., Sevacherian, V., Sharma, R. K., Nillus, T. and Reynolds, H. T. (1974) Insecticide applications based on hexalure® trap catches versus automatic schedule treatments for pink bollworm moth control. J. Econ. Ent. 67, 522524.
Turgeon, J. and McNeil, J. (1982) Calling behavior of the armyworm, Pseudaletia unipuncta. Ent. Exp. and Appl. 31, 402408.
Uvarov, B. P. (1921) A revision of the genus Locusta L. (Pachytulus Fieb.) with a new theory as to the periodicity and migrations of locusts. Bull. Ent. Res. 12, 135163.
van der Horst, D. J., van Doorn, J. M. and Beenakkers, A. M. Th. (1978) Dynamics in the haemolymph trehalose pool during flight of the locust, Locusta migratoria. Insect Biochem. 8, 413416.
van der Horst, D. J., Houben, N. M. D. and Beenakkers, A. M. Th. (1980) Dynamics of energy substrates in the haemolymph of Locusta migratoria during flight. J. Insect Physiol. 26, 441448.
van Handel, E. and Nayar, J. K. (1972a) Turn-over of diglycerides during flight and rest in the moth Spodoptera frugiperda. Insect Biochem. 2, 812.
van Handel, E. and Nayar, J. K. (1972b) Direct use of carbohydrates during sustained flight in the moth, Spodoptera frugiperda. Insect Biochem. 2, 203208.
van Handel, E. (1974) Lipid utilization during sustained flight of moths. J. Insect Physiol. 20, 23292332.
Watson, J. R. (1915) The velvet bean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis). Fla. Agric. Exp. Stn. Ann. Rep. 1914/1915, 4964.
Yagi, S. and Kuramochi, K. (1976) The role of juvenile hormone in larval duration and spermiogenesis in relation to phase variation in the tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Appl. Eni. Zool. 11, 133138.
Zaher, M. A. and Moussa, M. A. (1961) Effects of population density on Prodenia litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 54, 145149.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Physiological correlates in migratory noctuids: the velvetbean caterpillar as a model*

  • Abner M. Hammond (a1) and Howard W. Fescemyer (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.