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Insecticide susceptibility and activity of major detoxifying enzymes in female Helopeltis theivora (Heteroptera: Miridae) from sub-Himalayan tea plantations of North Bengal, India

  • Dhiraj Saha (a1), Somnath Roy (a1) and Ananda Mukhopadhyay (a1)

Abstract

Despite the continuous use of synthetic insecticides during the last two decades, the tea mosquito bug Helopeltis theivora Waterhouse still exists as the most destructive pest of tea in North East India. The susceptibility levels of the female sucking bug collected from conventional (synthetic insecticide treated: Terai and Dooars plain regions) and organic (synthetic insecticide untreated: low-altitude Darjeeling region) tea plantations of the northern part of West Bengal to two synthetic insecticides, quinalphos and cypermethrin, and the activity of three principal detoxifying enzymes were assayed. Compared with the susceptible Darjeeling population, the Terai and Dooars populations showed a resistance factor at the lethal concentrations for 50% level ranging from 547- to 2680.87-fold and from 3810- to 7480-fold for quinalphos and cypermethrin, respectively. General esterases (GEs), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and cytochrome P450-mediated mono-oxygenases (CYPs) also showed an increased activity in the Terai and Dooars populations compared with those from Darjeeling. Defence enzyme activity was enhanced by 15.4- and 17.6-fold for GEs, 1.8- and 1.9-fold for GSTs and 2.1- and 2.4-fold for CYPs in the synthetic insecticide-treated H. theivora populations when compared with the untreated Darjeeling populations. Electrophoretic analysis for GEs showed a higher level of expression for esterase I–VI isozymes in the Terai and Dooars populations when compared with that in the Darjeeling populations. This study reveals a reduced efficacy of quinalphos and cypermethrin against field populations of H. theivora, possibly due to enhanced activities of GEs, GSTs and CYPs. The findings may be used in developing integrated resistance management strategies that can help in the effective control of this major tea pest.

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Insecticide susceptibility and activity of major detoxifying enzymes in female Helopeltis theivora (Heteroptera: Miridae) from sub-Himalayan tea plantations of North Bengal, India

  • Dhiraj Saha (a1), Somnath Roy (a1) and Ananda Mukhopadhyay (a1)

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