Skip to main content Accessibility help

Effect of planting date on incidence and damage by Sesamia calamistis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in maize in southern Benin

  • Cyrille Adda (a1) (a2), Pierre Atachi (a2), Kerstin Hell (a3), Sam Korie (a4) and Manuele Tamo (a4)...


Stem and cob borers cause substantial damage to maize and affect the quality and economic value of maize in West Africa. Manipulation of planting dates is considered a possible mechanism for averting the overall impact of borers and their damage to the crop. Experiments were carried out in southern Benin to evaluate the effect of various planting dates on the incidence and damage to maize by Sesamia calamistis (Hampson). The trials were conducted at the Benin station of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) at Abomey-Calavi and at Sèhouè, located 70 km north of the IITA, Benin station. The planting dates were: early planting (the day following the first rains), intermediate planting (2–3 weeks after the early planting) and late planting (4–5 weeks after the early planting). The experiments were carried out in the main and minor cropping seasons, respectively, during two successive years in 2003 and 2004. The variables measured included population density of S. calamistis, percentage of infested plants and cob damage. In the main cropping season, incidence of stemborers and percentage of infested plants were higher in the late planting than in the early planting and intermediate planting treatments. The manipulation of planting dates for the control of S. calamistis during the minor maize growing season is not recommended.


Corresponding author


Hide All
Adandé, S. A. (ed) (1984) Le maïs et ses usages dans le Bénin méridional. ACCT, Les Nouvelles Editions Africaines. 100 pp.
Agboka, K., Gounou, S. and Tamo, M. (2006) The role of maize-legume-cassava intercropping in the management of maize ear borers with special reference to Mussidia nigrivenella Ragonot (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 42, 495502.
Ali, A. I., Jiang, N., Schulthess, F., Ogol, C. K. P. O. and Omwega, C. O. (2006) Effect of nitrogen fertilizer level on infestations of lepidopterous stemborers and yields of maize in Zanzibar. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 42, 481486.
Atachi, P. (1984) Investigation sur les insectes parasites du maïs en République Populaire du Bénin (1975–1982). Laboratoire de Défense des cultures, Porto-Novo. 47 pp.
Atachi, P. (1987) Influence des facteurs climatiques sur les populations de lépidoptères foreurs du maïs et de sorgho et certains diptères du sorgho dans diverses régions du Bénin. Bulletin d'Ecologie 18, 475493.
Bonhof, M. J., van Huis, A., Kiros, F. G. and Dibogo, N. (2001) Farmers' perceptions of importance, control methods and natural enemies of maize stemborers at the Kenya coast. Insect Science and Its Application 21, 3342.
Borgemeister, C., Chabi-Olaye, A., Nolte, C., Schulthess, F., Ndemah, R. and Sétamou, M. (2005) Role of habitat management technologies in the control of cereal stem and cob borers in sub-Saharan Africa. International symposium on biological control of arthropods, Davos, Switzerland, 12–16 September,
Bosque-Pérez, N. A., Kling, J. G. and Odubiyi, S. I. (1997) Recent advances in the development of sources of resistance to stem borer and African sugarcane borer, pp. 234240. In Insect Resistant Maize: Recent Advances and Utilization (edited by Mihm, J. A.). Proceedings of an International Symposium. CIMMYT, Mexico City.
Bosque-Pérez, N. A. and Mareck, J. H. (1989) Maize entomology research and insect resistance breeding at IITA, pp. 227235. In Towards Production Technologies for Maize and Cowpea in Semi-Arid West and Central Africa. SAFGRAD Maize-Cowpea joint Workshop Lomé, Togo. Semi-Arid Food Grain Research and Development Project, Burkina Faso.
Bosque-Pérez, N. A. and Mareck, J. H. (1990) Distribution and species compositions of lepidopterous maize borers in southern Nigeria. Bulletin of Entomological Research 80, 363368.
Bowden, J. (1976) Stemborer ecology and strategy for control. Annals of Applied Biology 84, 107111.
CIMMYT (1992) CIMMYT World Maize Facts and Trends: Maize Research, Investment and Impacts in Developing Countries. CIMMYT, Mexico City. 57 pp.
Chabi-Olaye, A., Schulthess, F., Nolte, C. and Borgemeister, C. (2002) Effect of maize/cassava/cowpea and soyabean intercropping on the population dynamics of Busseola fusca (Fuller) and their natural enemies in the humid forest zones of Cameroon. Abstracts of the Entomological Society of America Conference, Florida.
Chabi-Olaye, A., Schulthess, F., Poehling, H.-M. and Borgemeister, C. (2001) Factors affecting the biology of Telenomus isis (Polaszek) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), an egg parasitoid of cereal stem borers in West Africa. Biological Control 21, 4454.
Cugala, D., Schulthess, F., Ogol, C. P. O. and Omwega, C. O. (2006) Assessment of the impact of natural enemies on stem borer infestations and yield loss in maize using selected insecticides in Mozambique. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 42, 503510.
Denké, D., Schulthess, F., Bonato, O., Gounou, S. and Smith, H. (2000) Effet de la fumure en potassium sur le développement, la survie et la fécondité de Sesamia calamistis Hampson et de Eldana saccharina Walker sur maïs. Insect Science and Its Application 20, 151156.
Fanou, L. K., Lutz, C. H. and Salami, S. (1991) Les relations entre les marchés de maïs du Benin et les marchés des pays avoisinants au Togo, au Niger, et au Nigeria. Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques, Université Nationale du Benin, Cotonou. 77 pp.
Fiaboe, M. K., Chabi-Olaye, A., Gounou, S., Smith, H., Borgemeister, C. and Schulthess, F. (2003) Sesamia calamistis calling behavior and its role in host finding of egg parasitoids Telenomus busseolae, Telenomus isis and Lathromeris ovicida. Journal of Chemical Ecology 29, 921929.
Gomez, K. A. and Gomez, A. (1984) Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 704 pp.
Gounou, S., Schulthess, F., Shanower, T., Hammond, W. N. O., Braima, H., Cudjoe, A. R., Adjakloe, R., Antwi, K. and Olaleye, I. (1994) Stem and Ear Borers of Maize in Ghana. Plant Health Management Division Research. Monograph 4. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan. 31 pp.
IITA (2006) Research highlights. Cereal and legumes systems, Annual Report, 2006. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture.
Jiang, N., Zhou, G., Overholt, W. A., Muchugu, E. and Schulthess, F. (2006) The temporal correlation and spatial synchrony in the stemborer and parasitoid system of coastal Kenya with climate effects. Annales de la Société Entomologique de la France 42, 381387.
Kalule, T., Ogenga-Latigo, M. W. and Okoth, V. A. O. (1997) Seasonal fluctuations and damage of lepidopteran stemborers of maize in a major agroecozone of Uganda. African Crop Science Journal 5, 385393.
Koji, S., Khan, Z. R. and Midega, C. A. O. (2007) Field boundaries of Panicum maximum as a reservoir for predators and a sink for Chilo partellus. Journal of Applied Entomology 131, 186196.
Lawani, S. M. (1982) A review of the effects of various agronomic practices on cereal stem borer populations. Tropical Pest Management 28, 266276.
Littell, R. C., Pendergast, J. and Natarajan, R. (2000) Tutorial in biostatistics: modelling covariance structure in the analysis of repeated measures data. Statistics in Medicine 19, 17931819.
Lutz, C., Van Tilburg, A. and van der Kamp, B. (1995) The process of short- and long-term price integration in the Benin maize market. European Review of Agricultural Economics 22, 191212.
Matama-Kauma, T., Schulthess, F., Mueke, J., Omwega, C. O. and Ogwang, J. A. (2006) Effect of wild grasses planted as border rows on stemborer infestations in maize in Uganda. Annales de la Société Entomologique de la France 42, 455460.
Nago, C. M. (1997) La transformation alimentaire traditionnelle du maïs au Benin: détermination des caractéristiques physico-chimiques des variétés en usage. Relation avec l'obtention et la qualité des principaux produits dérivés. Thèse de Doctorat d'Etat, Université de Paris.
Nago, M. C. and Hounhouigan, D. J. (1998) La transformation alimentaire des céréales au Bénin. Les Publications du CERNA N° 1. 152 pp.
Ndemah, R., Gounou, S. and Schulthess, F. (2002) The role of wild grasses in the management of lepidopterous cereal stemborers on maize in western Africa. Bulletin of Entomological Research 92, 507519.
Ndemah, R., Schulthess, F., Poehling, H.-M. and Borgemeister, C. (2000) Species composition and seasonal dynamics of lepidopterous stem borers on maize and elephant grass, Pennisetum purpureum (Moench) (Poaceae) at two forest margin sites in Cameroon. African Entomology 8, 265272.
Oigiangbe, O. N., Ivbijaro, M. F., Ewete, F. K. and Mutsaers, H. J. W. (1997) Incidence and damage caused by maize stemborers on farmers' fields in South Western Nigeria. African Crop Science Journal 5, 295302.
Omwega, C. O., Muchugu, E., Overholt, W. A. and Schulthess, F. (2006) Release and establishment of Cotesia flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) an exotic parasitoid of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in East and Southern Africa. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 42, 511517.
ONASA (1997) Rapport d'Evaluation de la Campagne Agricole 1996/97 et les Perspectives Alimentaires pour 1997 au Bénin. Cotonou, Benin.
Polaszek, A. (ed) (1998) African Cereal Stemborers: Economic Importance, Taxonomy, Natural Enemies and Control. CABI, Wallingford. 530 pp.
Polaszek, A. and Khan, Z. R. (1998) Host plants, In African Cereal Stemborers: Economic Importance, Taxonomy, Natural Enemies and Control (Edited by Polaszek, A.). pp. 3–10. CABI, Wallingford. 530 pp.
Régine, A. and Coderre, D. (2000) Abondance et diversité des foreurs de tiges et grains dans une biculture maïs-arachide au centre du Cameroun. African Crop Science Journal 8, 365374.
SAS Institute (2004) SAS/STAT 9.1 user's guide. SAS Institute, Cary, NC.
Schulthess, F., Bosque-Perez, N. A. and Gounou, S. (1991) Sampling lepidopterous pests on maize in West Africa. Bulletin of Entomological Research 81, 297301.
Sétamou, M., Schulthess, F., Bosque Perez, N. A. and Thomas-Odjo, A. (1995) The effect of stem and cob borers on maize subjected to different nitrogen treatments. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 77, 205210.
Shanower, T. G., Schulthess, F. and Gounou, S. (1991) Distribution and Abundance of Some Stem and Cob Borers in Benin. Plant Health Management Division, Research Monograph No. 1. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Cotonou. 18 pp.
Sinzogan, A. A. C., Kossou, D. K., Atachi, P. and van Huis, A. (2006) Participatory evaluation of synthetic and botanical pesticide mixtures for cotton bollworm control. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 26, 246255.
Skovgård, H. and Päts, P. (1997) Reduction of stemborer damage by intercropping maize with cowpea. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment 62, 1319.
Smale, M. and de Groote, H. (2003) Diagnostic research to enable adoption of transgenic crop varieties by smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. African Journal of Biotechnology 2, 586595.
So, Y.-S. and Edwards, J. (2009) A comparison of mixed-model analyses of the lowa crop performance test for corn. Crop Science 49, 15931601.
Songa, J. M., Jiang, N., Schulthess, F. and Omwega, C. (2007) The role of intercropping different cereal species in controlling lepidopteran stemborers on maize in Kenya. Journal of Applied Entomology 131, 4049.
Songa, J. M., Overholt, W. A., Mueke, J. M. and Okello, R. O. (2002) Farmers perceptions of aspects of maize production systems and pests in semi-arid eastern Kenya: Factors influencing occurrence and control of stemborers. International Journal of Pest Management 48, 111.
Van den Berg, J. (2006) Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) as trap plant for Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Annales de la Société Entomologique de la France 42, 449454.
Van den Berg, J., Nur, A. F. and Polaszek, A. (1998) Cultural control, pp. 333–347. In African Cereal Stem-borers: Economic Importance, Taxonomy, Natural Enemies and Control (edited by Polaszek, A.). CAB International, Wallingford.
van Huis, A. and Meerman, F. (1998) Can we make IPM work for resource-poor farmers in sub-Saharan Africa? Bulletin of African Insect Science 18, 210.
Youm, O., Mamalo, A. K. and Nwanze, K. F. (1993) Bio-ecology and integrated management of the millet stem borer Coniesta ignefusalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): a review and highlights of current research at the ICRISAT Sahelian Center, pp. 5563. Proceedings of the Regional Pearl Millet Workshop, 19–21 September 1990 (edited by O. Youm and K. A. Kumar). ICRISAT Sahelian Center, Niamey.


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Effect of planting date on incidence and damage by Sesamia calamistis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in maize in southern Benin

  • Cyrille Adda (a1) (a2), Pierre Atachi (a2), Kerstin Hell (a3), Sam Korie (a4) and Manuele Tamo (a4)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.