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Dynamics of cocoa pollination: tools and applications for surveying and monitoring cocoa pollinators

  • E.A. Frimpong (a1), I. Gordon (a2), P.K. Kwapong (a1) and B. Gemmill-Herren (a3)


Pollinators are important natural agents for fruit and seed formation in most tree crops and the use of appropriate sampling methods is fundamental in studying their population. A study to develop surveying and monitoring protocols for cocoa pollinators was undertaken in Ghana. Yellow, white and blue UV-bright painted pan traps (UVPPT), McPhail traps and motorized aspirators were used to sample pollinators of cocoa for 13 successive months, after 6 days assessment of the effectiveness of the traps and diurnal active period of the pollinators. The peak pollinating period of cocoa by ceratopogonid midges was between 07.00 and 12.00 h, as previously reported. All three methods were effective in sampling ceratopogonid midges with the UVPPT being the most efficient in terms of sampling effort. The number of ceratopogonid midges caught by the yellow-UVPPT was significantly higher than that by blue- and white-UVPPT. The diversity of midges caught could not be determined due to taxonomic difficulties, and thus all the three colours of UVPPT should be used until efficiency in terms of diversity is determined. It is reported here that the meliponine bee Liotrigona parvula Darchen visits cocoa flowers and thus their effectiveness in cocoa pollination should be investigated.


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Dynamics of cocoa pollination: tools and applications for surveying and monitoring cocoa pollinators

  • E.A. Frimpong (a1), I. Gordon (a2), P.K. Kwapong (a1) and B. Gemmill-Herren (a3)


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