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Tropical, subtropical and temperate life cycles in ground crickets

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 September 2011

Sinzo Masaki
Affiliation:
Laboratory of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki 036, Japan
Issei Shirado
Affiliation:
Laboratory of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki 036, Japan
Atsushi Nagase
Affiliation:
Laboratory of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki 036, Japan

Abstract

The band-legged ground cricket group comprises a pair of very closely related species; Dianemobius fascipes occurs widely over tropical and subtropical regions of Southeast Asia, while D. nigrofasciatus is restricted to temperate regions. A similar situation is found in the lawn ground cricket group; the tropical/subtropical species D. taprobanensis is replaced by D. mikado in temperate regions. In both southern species, tropical strains were almost homodynamic, but they produced a few delayed eggs independently of photoperiod and a variable proportion of macropters in response to photoperiod; subtropical strains showed clearer responses. Both northern species controlled egg diapause, nymphal development and wing form by various photoperiodic responses. The two species groups showed parallel geographical profiles of size variation, and the adults and eggs were smaller in the southern than in the northern species. In the absence of strong climatic selection for larger growth rate, size increase in tropical regions would be counteracted by predation pressure. The optimal adult size thus seems to be smaller in tropical than in temperate regions, being determined by the geographically variable balance between counteracting selecting forces.

Résumé

Le groupe de grillon des champs qui a les pattes rayés contient une paire d'espèces très étroitement apparantées; Dianemobius fascipes occupe largement les régions tropicales et subtropicales du Sud-Est asiatique, tandis que D. nigrofasciatus est restreint aux régions temperées. Une situation semblable se voit dans le groupe de grillon des champs qui habite dans le gazon; les espèces tropicales subtropicales D. taprobanensis est remplacé par D. mikado dans les région temperées. Dans tous les deux espèces du sud, les races tropicales etaient presque homodynamiques, mais elles produisaiet quelques oeufs indépendamment de photopériodisme et une proportion variable de macroptères selon l'influence du photopériodisme; les races subtropicales montraient les influences plus claires. Tous les deux espèces du nord réglaient la diapause des oeufs, le development nymphal et la forme d'ailes selon les influences diverses du photopériodisme. Les deux espèces montraient les parallèles profils géographiques de la variation de grandeur, et les imagos et les oeufs étaient plus petits dans les espèces du sud que dans celles du nord. En l'absence de la séléction puissante climatique pour le taux plus grand de croissance, l'accroissement de grandeur dans les régions tropicales serait contrecarré par la pression de prédation. Déterminée par la balance variable de géographie d'entre les puissances d'opposition et de séléction, la grandeur optimale de l'imago donc semble plus petie dans la région tropicale que dans la région temperée.

Type
Symposium III: Life-History Traits in Tropical Insects
Copyright
Copyright © ICIPE 1987

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