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Population Dynamics of the Pea Aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Homoptera: Aphididae) on Field Pea (Pisum sativum L.) in Northwestern Ethiopia

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 September 2011

Melaku Wale
Affiliation:
Adet Research Centre, P. O. Box 8, Bahir Dar, Ethiopiaarari@telecom.net.et
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Once a minor pest, the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) has recently become a major pest of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) in Ethiopia, particularly in the northwestern region. To determine the population dynamics of the pest, field experiments were carried out at Adet and Zema in northwestern Ethiopia in 1994, 1995 and 1996. Treatments were planting dates at 15-day intervals in May, June and July and sampling was carried out weekly until crop maturity. Combined ANOVA, over seasons and locations, showed significant effects of sowing dates, seasons and locations. Pea aphid populations increased and decreased with delay in planting at Adet and Zema, respectively. At Adet, peaks of weekly counts of aphid numbers were observed in August and seasonal totals of aphids on individual planting dates increased as planting was delayed. At Zema, peaks of weekly counts of aphid numbers were observed in mid-July (1996), late August and early September (1995) and mid-September (1994); peas planted on June 16 gave the lowest seasonal totals of aphids. Natural enemies (predators and parasitoids) appeared in considerable numbers in 1996 and these tended to increase as planting date was delayed. For most planting dates and years, weekly aphid populations showed positive correlation with maximum temperature, and negative correlation with minimum temperature and relative humidity. Increasing maximum temperature promoted the buildup of aphid populations while increased minimum temperature, rainfall and relative humidity suppressed it. Grain yield increased and decreased as planting date was delayed at Adet and Zema, respectively. From these results, it is recommended that planting of field peas should take place from mid- to late June at Adet and during the first week of June at Zema to obtain higher yields; by doing so a mean of 0.32 t/ha and 0.50 t/ha higher yield was obtained, respectively.

Résumé

Autrefois, ravageur mineur, le puceron du pois, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) est devenu depuis peu un ravageur important des champs de petits pois (Pisum sativum L.) en Ethiopie, en particulier dans la province du Nord Ouest. Afin de préciser la dynamique des populations du ravageur, des expérimentations au champ ont été conduites à Adet et Zema dans le Nord Ouest de l'Ethiopie, en 1994, 1995 et 1996. Les parcelles d'essais ont été plantées à 15 jours d'intervalle en mai, juin et juillet et les échantillonnages ont été réalisés chaque semaine jusqu'à la récolte. Une analyse par ANOVA factorielle sur les saisons et les localités, montre des effets significatifs des dates de semis, des saisons et des localités. Les populations du puceron du pois augmentent et diminuent sur les semis tardifs respectivement à Adet et Zema. A Adet, les effectifs maximum hebdomadaires de pucerons ont été observés en août et le nombre total de pucerons par date de semis est d'autant plus important que la date du semis est tardive. A Zema, les effectifs maximum hebdomadaires de pucerons ont été observés à la mi-juillet (1996), fin août et début septembre (1995) et mi-septembre (1994); les parcelles semées le 16 juin ont eu les plus faibles effectifs de pucerons. Le nombre d'ennemis naturels (prédateurs et parasitoïdes) a été considérable en 1996 et il tend à augmenter lorsque la date du semis est tardive. Pour la plupart des dates de semis et des années, les effectifs de pucerons hebdomadaires, sont corrélés positivement avec la température maximale, négativement avec la température minimale et l'humidité relative. Une augmentation de la température maximale favorise l'accroissement des effectifs du puceron, alors qu'une diminution de la température minimale et une augmentation de la pluviométrie et de l'humidité relative est défavorable. Le rendement augmente et diminue sur les semis tardifs respectivement à Adet et Zema. A partir de ces résultats, on recommande de semer les champs de petits pois la seconde quinzaine du mois de juin à Adet et pendant la première semaine de juin à Zema afin d'obtenir les meilleurs rendements; une telle pratique culturale permet d'augmenter respectivement les rendements de 0,32 t/ha et 0.50 t/ha.

Type
Research Articles
Copyright
Copyright © ICIPE 2002

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Population Dynamics of the Pea Aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Homoptera: Aphididae) on Field Pea (Pisum sativum L.) in Northwestern Ethiopia
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