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Biology of the African sweetpotato weevil species Cylas puncticollis (Boheman) and C. brunneus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Apionidae)

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 September 2011

N. E. J. M. Smit
Affiliation:
International Potato Centre (CIP), Uganda Office, P.O. Box 7878, Kampala, Uganda
A. van Huis
Affiliation:
Department of Entomology, Wageningen Agricultural University, P.O. Box 8031, 6700 EH Wageningen, The Netherlands

Abstract

The biology of two African sweetpotato weevil species, Cylas puncticollis and C. brunneus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Apionidae), was studied in laboratory experiments carried out at 27 ± 1°C, 45 ± 5% RH, and a 12 h photophase. Cylas puncticollis females lived longer than C. brunneus (141 ± 10 and 92±12 days respectively), developed faster (egg to adult 20–28 days, and 32–41 days respectively) and had a lower oviposition rate (1.10 ± 0.04 and 1.53 ± 0.06 eggs per female per day respectively). The total egg production per female (average 101), sex ratio (1:1) and proportion of eggs surviving to adulthood (average 89%) were similar for both species. The intrinsic rate of increase was higher for C. puncticollis (0.553 per 10-day period compared to 0.521 for C. brunneus). Under field conditions C. brunneus will benefit from its higher oviposition rate during periods of favourable conditions for sweet potato weevils, like dry spells which expose tubers for egg laying. Cylas puncticollis will benefit from its longer longevity during less favourable conditions, as females can survive extended periods when no oviposition sites are available and then resume egg laying when conditions improve.

Résumé

La biologie de deux espèces africaines de charançons de la patate douce, Cylas puncticollis et C. brunneus a été suivie en laboratoire à 27 ± 1°C, 45 ± 5% de HR et 12 h de photopériode. Les résultats montrent que les femelles de C. puncticollis vivent plus longtemps que celles de C. brunneus (141 ± 10 et 92 ± 12 jours, respectivement). La femelle de Cylas puncticollis se développe plus rapidement que celle de l'autre espèce (respectivement 20–29 jours contre 32–41 jours, de l'oeuf à l'adulte). Elle a aussi un taux journalier de ponte plus bas (1,10 ± 0,04 contre 1,53 ± 0,06 oeufs, respectivement). Chez les deux espèces, on a enregistré une ponte moyenne par femelle de 101 oeufs, un sex ratio de 1:1 et un taux d'éclosion d'oeufs de 89%. Au cours d'une décade, le taux intrinsèque de croissance était de 0,553 chez C. puncticollis contre 0,521 pour C. brunneus. En champs, C. brunneus sera avantagé parsa capacité très élevée de pondre pendant les conditions favorables de développement des charançons comme la saison sèche qui favorise la ponte par l'exposition des tubercules à la surface. Cylas puncticollis va profiter de sa longévité plus étendue pour endurer les conditions moins favorables, et étant donné que les femelles peuvent survivre longtemps quand les sites de ponte ne sont pas disponibles, elles sont capables de reprendre les pontes quand ces conditions s'améliorent.

Type
Research Articles
Copyright
Copyright © ICIPE 1998

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Biology of the African sweetpotato weevil species Cylas puncticollis (Boheman) and C. brunneus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Apionidae)
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