Author's note: I thank Alexis Wick and Dahlia Gubara for their helpful comments on the first draft of this paper.
Bray, Julia, “Men, Women and Slaves in Abbasid Society,” in Gender in the Early Medieval World, ed. Brubaker, Leslie and Smith, Julia M. H (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 121–46.
El Cheikh, Nadia Maria, Women, Islam and Abbasid Identity (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2015): 6–7
Ahmed, Leila, Women and Gender in Islam (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1992): 83–85.
Sirat Ahmad ibn Tulun, ed. Muhammad Kurd ʿAli (Damascus: al-Maktaba al-ʿArabiyya, 1939), 260–64.
N.e. (Cairo: al-Matbaʿa al-Amiriyya, 1331–38/1913–19), 7:5–10.
I was fortunate enough to have attended two courses taught by Professor al-Qadi at Columbia University (1985–86), in one of which we studied the letter. My comment is drawn from class notes.
Muhammad Abu al-Fadl Ibrahim, ed., Ta'rikh al-Tabari (Cairo: Dar al-Maʿarif, 1960–68), 8:275–77. See also
Bosworth, C. E, trans., The History of al-Tabari, vol. 30, The Abbasid Caliphate in Equilibrium (Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, 1989), 179–83.
Hazm, Ibn, Risala fi Ummahat al-Khulafaʾ, ed. Abbas, Ihsan (Beirut: al-Muʾassasa al-ʿArabiyya, 1981), 120–21.
For a close reading of these accounts, see
El-Hibri, Tayeb, Reinterpreting Islamic Historiography: Harun al-Rashid and the Narrative of the Abbasid Caliphate (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999): 59–94
For two accounts, see ibid., 95–142; and
Cooperson, Michael, al-Maʾmun (Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 2005), esp. 39–79.
See Bosworth, Equilibrium, 182.
Bray, “Men, Women and Slaves,” 142.
Crone, Patricia, Slaves on Horses: The Evolution of the Islamic Polity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980), 74–81
Ibn Hazm, Ummahat, 120.
Bray, “Men, Women and Slaves,” 141.
Ali, Kecia, Marriage and Slavery in Early Islam (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2010);
Brockopp, Jonathan, Early Maliki Law: Ibn ʿAbd al-Hakam and His Major Compendium of Jurisprudence (Leiden: Brill, 2000); and
Mattson, Ingrid, A Believing Slave Is Better Than an Unbeliever (PhD thesis, University of Chicago, 1999).
El Cheikh, Nadia Maria, “Gender and Politics in the Harem of al-Muqtadir,” in Gender in the Early Medieval World: East and West, 300–900, ed. Brubaker, Leslie and Smith, Julia M. H. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 147–61; and
Kennedy, Hugh, The Court of the Caliphs: The Rise and Fall of Islam's Greatest Dynasty (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2004): 160–99.