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MUSCULAR MUSLIMS: SCOUTING IN LATE COLONIAL ALGERIA BETWEEN NATIONALISM AND RELIGION

  • Jakob Krais (a1)

Abstract

The Islamic reformist movement in Algeria is often seen as a precursor to the independence movement, in which religion was supposedly integrated into nationalist identity politics. Focusing on the Muslim scout movements between the 1930s and 1950s, this article challenges this view by arguing that Islam continued to play a role beyond that of an identitarian marker. Influenced by Christian youth movements, the Muslim scouts developed ideas of a “muscular Islam” that remained central even after the movement split in two—one association close to the major nationalist party and another linked to the reformists.

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This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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NOTES

Author's note: I would like to thank the participants of the workshop “A Century of Youth Engaging Politics in the Middle East and North Africa” (Winnipeg, Manitoba, 11-12 December 2017) for their useful comments on an earlier version of this paper, and especially the organizers Jennifer Dueck (University of Manitoba) and Peter Wien (University of Maryland).

1 See Stora, Benjamin, Le nationalisme algérien avant 1954 (Paris: Centre national de la recherche scientifique, 2010).

2 See Byrne, Jeffrey James, Mecca of Revolution: Algeria, Decolonization, and the Third World Order (New York: Oxford University Press, 2016); and Choueiri, Youssef M., Arab Nationalism: A History (Oxford: Blackwell, 2000), 175–76.

3 See also McDougall, James, History and the Culture of Nationalism in Algeria (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), 225–38; and Choueiri, Arab Nationalism, 66.

4 Mahfoud Kaddache, Histoire du nationalisme algérien. Question nationale et politique algérienne 1919–1951, vol. 1 (Algiers: Société nationale d’édition et de diffusion, 1981), 338. All translations from French and Arabic are by the author.

5 See most recently Addi, Lahouari, Radical Arab Nationalism and Political Islam, trans. Roberts, Anthony (Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 2017); and Tibi, Bassam, Arab Nationalism: Between Islam and the Nation-State, 3rd ed. (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1997), 218–33.

6 See, e.g., Haenni, Patrick, L'islam de marché. L'autre révolution conservatrice (Paris: Seuil, 2005).

7 See Peter Wien, Arab Nationalism: The Politics of History and Culture in the Modern Middle East (New York: Routledge, 2017), 9–15.

8 For further discussion of the relevant literature, see Watanabe, Shoko, “The Party of God: The Association of Algerian Muslim ʿUlamaʾ in Contention with the Nationalist Movement after World War II,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 50 (2018): 271–90.

9 Founded by Messali Hadj, the PPA was the major Algerian nationalist party in the late 1930s and 1940s. After it was banned by the French authorities in 1939, it continued to operate clandestinely. In 1946, Messali reconstituted the PPA legally as the MTLD, but both names remained in use, often with the combined abbreviation PPA-MTLD. On its character, see Stora, Le nationalisme algérien, 133–50; and Kaddache, Histoire du nationalisme algérien, 504–25.

10 See, e.g., Derouiche, Mohamed, Le scoutisme, école du patriotisme (Algiers: Entreprise nationale algérienne du livre/Office des publications universitaires, 1985), 2123; Aroua, Ali and Illoul, Mohamed Tayeb, Le groupe Emir Khaled de Belcourt. Un maillon des Scouts Musulmans Algériens 1946–1962 (Algiers: Dahlab, 1991), 71; and Mohamed El Kechaï, 60 années de lutte ou la longue marche d'un chef scout musulman volontaire du Croissant rouge (n.p. [Tizi-Ouzou]: n.p., n.d. [1996]), 68. On the Centenaire scout camp, see “Fédération Nord-Africaine des « Éclaireurs Français »: Camp national du Centenaire,” L’Éclaireur Français, special issue: Camp national du Centenaire (1930); and Gustave Mercier, Le Centenaire de l'Algérie. Exposé d'ensemble (Algiers: Soubiron, 1931), 2:246–47. See also Nicolas Palluau, “«Gardez l'image de la vie rude des défricheurs». Les éclaireurs de France et le camp scout du centenaire de l'Algérie française en 1930,” in À l’école de l'aventure. Pratiques sportives de plein air et idéologie de la conquête du monde 1890–1940, ed. Christian Pociello and Daniel Denis (Voiron: Presses universitaires du sport, 2000).

11 Kechaï, 60 années de lutte, 16. See also Jansen, Jan C., “Fête et ordre colonial: Centenaires et résistance anticolonialiste en Algérie pendant les années 1930,” Vingtième Siècle 121 (2014): 6176; and McDougall, James, A History of Algeria (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017), 143–47.

12 See Derouiche, Le scoutisme, 48–83.

13 See “Fédération des Scouts Musulmans Algériens. Assemblée Constituante,” La Défense, 3 May 1939.

14 On the origins of the Algerian scout movement, see Bouamrane, Chikh and Djidjelli, Mohamed, Scouts Musulmans Algériens (1935–1955) (Algiers: Dar El Oumma, 2010), 983; Derouiche, Le scoutisme, 20–40, 143–51; Aroua and Illoul, Le groupe Emir Khaled, 71–75; Baghli, Abdelouahab, L'itinéraire d'un Chef de Meute: Khaled Merzouk. Scouts Musulmans Algériens, Groupe El Mansourah de Tlemcen 1936–1962 (Tlemcen: Baghli, 2000), 1243, 151–66; and Kechaï, 60 années de lutte, 68–83.

15 On Bouras, see Hamdan Buzar, “al-Shahid Muhammad Buras wa-l-Kashshafa al-Jazaʾiriyya wa-l-Haraka al-Wataniyya,” in al-Kashshafa al-Islamiyya al-Jazaʾiriyya: Dirasat wa-Buhuth al-Nadwa al-Wataniyya al-Ula hawla Tarikh al-Kashshafa al-Islamiyya al-Jazaʾiriyya (Algiers: al-Markaz al-Watani li-l-Dirasat wa-l-Buhuth fi al-Haraka al-Wataniyya wa-Thawrat Awwal Nufambir 1954, 1999).

16 See, e.g., “Kashshaf al-Rajaʾ wa-Tajdid Majlis Idaratihi,” al-Basa'ir, Rabiʿ al-Awwal 17, 1356/28 May 1937; “Sawt min Kashshaf al-Rajaʾ bi-Qusantina,” al-Shihab, Rabiʿ al-Thani 1, 1356/11 June 1937; and “Le scoutisme musulman à Constantine,” La Défense, 6 April 1938.

17 See Watanabe, Shoko, “Organizational Changes in the Algerian National Movement as Seen through the Muslim Boy Scouts in the 1930s and 1940s: The Struggle for Influence between the Association of Ulama and the PPA-MTLD,” Journal of Sophia Asian Studies 30 (2012): 4146. On Ben Badis and the Algerian iṣlāḥ movement, see McDougall, James, “Abdelhamid Ben Badis et l'association des oulémas,” in Histoire de l'Algérie à la période coloniale, ed. Bouchène, Abderrahmane et al. (Paris: La Découverte, 2014), 387–92; and McDougall, History and the Culture of Nationalism, 97–143.

18 See Derouiche, Le scoutisme, 115–19, 156–61; Baghli, L'itinéraire, 99–102, 144–49; Aroua and Illoul, Le groupe Emir Khaled, 127–45; Kechaï, 60 années de lutte, 86–104; and Louanchi, Anne-Marie, Salah Louanchi. Parcours d'un militant algérien (Algiers: Dahlab, 1999), 2631, 61–69. See also Watanabe, “Organizational Changes,” 51–54. In May 1945, on the occasion of the Allied victory in Europe, Algerian nationalists, led by the boy scouts, demonstrated for independence, especially in the eastern Constantinois region. In the ensuing repression, thousands of Algerians died or were arrested. Nine and a half years later, on 1 November 1954, the newly established National Liberation Front (Front de Libération Nationale, FLN) started the war of independence with a series of attacks across the country. See McDougall, A History of Algeria, 179–82, 195–201.

19 See, e.g., Baghli, L'itinéraire, 31–35; and Bouamrane and Djidjelli, Scouts Musulmans Algériens, 308–10.

20 See Wien, Arab Nationalism, 35–47.

21 See “Le Maréchal Lyautey est mort !,” Le scout cirtéen, October 1934; Z’Œil de Lynx, “Pour éclairer - Chevaliers des Temps Modernes: Henri Vadon, héros de la science, qui se donne en éclaireur, avec le sourire,” Le Mowgli, December 1926.

22 For Bouras see, e.g., Derouiche, Le scoutisme, 41–47; Aroua and Illoul, Le groupe Emir Khaled, 78–83; and Kechaï, 60 années de lutte, 108–12, 118–19; for Ben Badis see Bouamrane and Djidjelli, Scouts Musulmans Algériens 231–49; Muhammad al-Mansuri al-Ghasiri, “al-Shaykh ʿAbd al-Hamid Bin Badis wa-l-Kashshafa al-Islamiyya al-Jazaʾiriyya,” al-Hayat, April 1950; and “Abdelhamid Ben Baddis,” La Voix des Jeunes, May 1952.

23 See, e.g., Muhammad al-Mansuri al-Ghasiri, “Suwar min Hayat al-Ustadh al-Imam Muhammad ʿAbduh, Rahimahu Allah,” al-Hayat, January 1951; “al-Tawjih al-Siyasi fi Fajr al-Nahda al-Haditha bi-l-Sharq: Mawqif al-Imam Muhammad ʿAbduh min Taʿalim Jamal al-Din,” al-Manar, 24 April 1953; and “Muhammad ʿAbduh wa-l-Shamal al-Ifriqi,” al-Manar, 5 June 1953.

24 See “Commémoration du millénaire d'Ibn-Sina,” La Voix des Jeunes, June 1952; and Derouiche, Le scoutisme, 53.

25 See ibid., 23. On King Faruq, see also Jacob, Wilson Chacko, Working Out Egypt: Effendi Masculinity and Subject Formation in Colonial Modernity, 1870–1940 (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2011), 113–23.

26 Derouiche, Le scoutisme, 159; Aroua and Illoul, Le groupe Emir Khaled, 71. See also Aroua and Illoul, Le groupe Emir Khaled, 147–56; and Bouamrane and Djidjelli, Scouts Musulmans Algériens, 308–13.

27 Mohammed Harbi, Une vie debout. Mémoires politiques, vol. 1, 1945–1962 (Paris: La Découverte, 2001), 43. For instances where the hadith or the verses are used, see Ibn al-Rumi, “Hubb al-Watan min al-Iman,” al-Shihab, Shawwal - Dhu al-Qaʿda 1355/January 1937; and Malek Bennabi, Vocation de l'Islam (Beirut: Albouraq, 2006), 85.

28 Hadj, Messali, Les mémoires de Messali Hadj 1898–1938 (Paris: Lattès, 1982), 108.

29 See Harbi, Une vie debout, 58–59, 113.

30 See Youssef Fatès, “Le club sportif, structure d'encadrement et de formation nationaliste de la jeunesse musulmane pendant la période coloniale,” in De l'Indochine à l'Algérie. La jeunesse en mouvements des deux côtés du miroir colonial 1940–1962, ed. Nicolas Bancel, Daniel Denis, and Youssef Fatès (Paris: La Découverte, 2003).

31 See, e.g., “al-Lugha Asas al-Hayat al-Qawmiyya: La Hayat li-Shaʿb La Lugha lahu Yataʿallaq biha,” al-Basa'ir, 19 February 1937; and Chikh Bouamrane, “L'arabe langue vivante,” al-Hayat, November-December 1955.

32 See Amuqran al-Hasani, ʿAbd al-Hafiz, Mudhakkirat min Masirat al-Nidal wa-l-Jihad (Algiers: Dar El Ouma, 1997), 24. On the overlap between different political groups on a local level, see also Rahal, Malika, “A Local Approach to the UDMA: Local-Level Politics during the Decade of Political Parties, 1946–56,” Journal of North African Studies 18 (2013): 703–24.

33 McDougall, History and the Culture of Nationalism, 225. See also Stora, Le nationalisme algérien, 180–83. This search for religiously grounded authenticity can even be found among Communists: see, e.g., “Mabadiʾ al-Shuyuʿiyya: al-Shuyuʿiyya wa-l-Din,” al-Jaza ʾir al-Jadida, Shawwal - Dhu al-Qaʿda 1366/September 1947.

34 See, e.g., Loup Cervier, “Histoire indienne,” Le Mowgli, November 1927. The Protestant scout paper was actually called Le Mowgli, while the SDF publication Le scout cirtéen featured a section titled “Dans la jungle de l'Algérie” in each issue. On this kind of hybrid exoticism in colonial scouting, see also Wu, Jialin Christina, “‘A Life of Make-Believe’: Being Boy Scouts and ‘Playing Indian’ in British Malaya (1910–42),” Gender & History 26 (2014): 589619.

35 See Aroua and Illoul, Le groupe Emir Khaled, 40–42.

36 See the photograph in Bulletin d'information - Scouts Musulmans Algériens 5 (1951): 17. See also Wien, Arab Nationalism, 48–79. In other pictures, the Muslim scouts are wearing either their uniform or European-style suits and ties.

37 On the competing claims with regard to the emancipation of women in late colonial Algeria, see Seferdjeli, Ryme, “French ‘Reforms’ and Muslim Women's Emancipation during the Algerian War,” Journal of North African Studies 9 (2004): 1961.

38 See, e.g., Bennabi, Malek, Les conditions de la renaissance. Problème d'une civilisation (Algiers: Entreprise nationale de communication, d’édition et de publicité, 2005), 123–28; and Bennabi, Colonisabilité. Problèmes de la civilisation (Algiers: Dar El Hadhara, 2003), 200–213.

39 See Zuhur Wanisi, “al-Marʾa al-Muslima wa-l-Haraka al-Kashfiyya,” al-Hayat, November - December 1955.

40 See Bancel, Nicolas, “Les Scouts de France et les Éclaireurs de France en AOF (1945–1960). Les conditions sociales et politiques du développement de deux mouvements de jeunesse en contacte colonial,” in Sports et loisirs dans les colonies, XIXᵉ - XXᵉ siècles. Asie, Pacifique, océan Indien, Afrique, Caraïbes, ed. Évelyne Combeau-Mari (Paris: Le Publieur, 2004), 219–38; and Gastaud, Philippe, “Les sports dans les mouvements de jeunesse guadeloupéens: des supports de lutte entre laïques et catholiques 1913–1939,” Staps 69, no. 3 (2005): 4156.

41 For this notion, see Bhabha, Homi K., The Location of Culture (London: Routledge, 2001), 121–31, 145–74.

42 See Jacob, Working Out Egypt, 92–124; Watenpaugh, Keith David, “Scouting in the Interwar Arab Middle East: Youth, Colonialism and the Problem of Middle-Class Modernity,” in Scouting Frontiers: Youth and the Scout Movement's First Century, ed. Block, Nelson R. and Proctor, Tammy M. (Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars, 2009), 89105; Dueck, Jennifer M., The Claims of Culture at Empire's End: Syria and Lebanon under French Rule (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010), 183228; and Koyagi, Mikiya, “Moulding Future Soldiers and Mothers of the Iranian Nation: Gender and Physical Education under Reza Shah, 1921–41,” International Journal of the History of Sport 26 (2009): 1668–96.

43 See Denis, Daniel, “Le sport et le scoutisme, ruses de l'Histoire,” in De l'Indochine à l'Algérie. La jeunesse en mouvements des deux côtés du miroir colonial 1940–1962, ed. Bancel, Nicolas, Denis, Daniel, and Fatès, Youssef (Paris: La Découverte, 2003), 195.

44 See Eppel, Michael, “Note about the Term effendiyya in the History of the Middle East,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 41 (2009): 535–39; Ryzova, Lucie, The Age of the Efendiyya: Passages of Modernity in National-Colonial Egypt (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014), 137; Jacob, Working Out Egypt, 44–64; and Watenpaugh, Keith David, Being Modern in the Middle East: Revolution, Nationalism, Colonialism, and the Arab Middle Class (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2006), 299308.

45 See Wien, Arab Nationalism, 172–97.

46 See Dueck, The Claims of Culture, 118–41; and Watenpaugh, Being Modern, 225–78.

47 See Nordbruch, Götz, “Islam as a ‘Giant Progressive Leap’ - Religious Critiques of Fascism and National Socialism, 1933–1945,” Die Welt des Islams 52 (2012): 499525.

48 See, e.g., “Pour le projet Viollette, contre le projet Hitler,” La Défense, 23 February 1938.

49 See Ahmed, Hocine Aït, Mémoires d'un combattant. L'esprit de l'indépendance 1942–1952 (Paris: Messinger, 1983), 2122; Aroua and Illoul, Le groupe Emir Khaled, 82–83; and Derouiche, Le scoutisme, 44–47.

50 See Wien, Arab Nationalism, 194.

51 Aït Ahmed, Mémoires, 24.

52 See McDougall, A History of Algeria, 116–17.

53 Instances of collaboration between Islamic reformists and Communists included the Algerian Muslim Congress of 1936 and the Algerian Front for the Defense and Respect of Liberty, founded in 1951. On the links between Algerian movements and French leftist parties, see Stora, Le nationalisme algérien, 15–78.

54 Due to the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, the event had to be cancelled at the last moment. See Physick, Ray, “The Olimpiada Popular: Barcelona 1936, Sport and Politics in an Age of War, Dictatorship and Revolution,” Sport in History 37 (2017): 5175.

55 See Si Brahim Amouchi, Mémoires d'un éducateur de la jeunesse (Constantine: El-Baâth, 1991). See also McDougall, James, “The Shabiba Islamiyya of Algiers: Education, Authority, and Colonial Control, 1921–57,” Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 24 (2004): 147–54; Abdelmadjid Merdaci, “‘Djam'iyat ettarbiya oua etta'lim’ (1930–1957). Au carrefour des enjeux identitaires,” Insaniyat 35–36 (2007): 97–107; Zekkour, Afaf, “Les lieux de sociabilité islahistes et leurs usages: la ville d'Alger (1931–1940),” Le Mouvement social 236 (2011): 2334; and Courreye, Charlotte, “L’école musulmane algérienne de Ibn Bâdîs dans les années 1930, de l'alphabetisation de tous comme enjeu politique,” Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Méditerranée 136 (2014), remmm.revues.org/8500.

56 See Krämer, Gudrun, Hasan al-Banna (Oxford: Oneworld, 2010), 2546.

57 See Hasan al-Banna, “Suʾal wa-Jawab ʿala Mabadiʾ al-Ikhwan al-Muslimin,” al-Manar, 23 January 1953; and Sayyid Qutb, “Ya li-Jarahat al-Watan al-Islami,” al-Manar, 12 December 1952. For Omar Carlier, the Muslim Scouts can even be considered a sort of Algerian branch of the Muslim Brotherhood. Although this might be misleading, as it had no organizational ties to the Egyptian movement, the Brotherhood's function as a role model was certainly important. See Carlier, Omar, “Mouvements de jeunesse, passage des générations et créativité sociale: la radicalité inventive algérienne des années 1940–1950,” in De l'Indochine à l'Algérie. La jeunesse en mouvements des deux côtés du miroir colonial 1940–1962, ed. Bancel, Nicolas, Denis, Daniel, and Fatès, Youssef (Paris: La Découverte, 2003), 172.

58 See Nordbruch, “Islam as a Giant Progressive Leap,” 521–25.

59 See Krämer, Gudrun, “Making Modern Muslims: Islamic Reform, Hasan al-Banna, and the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood,” in Delimiting Modernities: Conceptual Challenges and Regional Responses, ed. Weber, Ralph and Trakulhun, Sven (Lanham, Mass: Lexington, 2015), 197213; Krämer, Hasan al-Banna, 54–57; and Jacob, Working Out Egypt, 109–13.

60 See Baron, Beth, The Orphan Scandal: Christian Missionaries and the Rise of the Muslim Brotherhood (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2014), 117–34.

61 See Delpal, Bernard, “Pères Blancs” and “Sœurs Blanches,” in L'Algérie et la France, ed. Verdès-Leroux, Jeannine (Paris: Laffont, 2009), 688–90, 778–79.

62 See Derouiche, Le scoutisme, 84–88, 200–201; and Kechaï, 60 années de lutte, 24–26. See also Christien, Lionel and Gauthé, Jean-Jacques, “Paris-Alger. Les Scouts de France et la guerre d'Algérie,” in De l'Indochine à l'Algérie. La jeunesse en mouvements des deux côtés du miroir colonial 1940–1962, ed. Bancel, Nicolas, Denis, Daniel, and Fatès, Youssef (Paris: La Découverte, 2003), 263; Gauthé, Jean-Jacques, “Le scout est loyal envers son pays… Mouvements scoutes et nationalismes en Europe et aux colonies (1909–1962),” in Le scoutisme: un mouvement d’éducation au XXe siècle. Dimensions internationales, ed. Gérard Cholvy (Montpellier: Université Paul Valéry, 2002), 236–37.

63 On the development of French Protestant scouting, see Baubérot, Arnaud, “Le protestantisme est-il soluble dans le scoutisme?,” Bulletin de la Société de l'Histoire du Protestantisme Français 154 (2008): 289–93.

64 Feraoun, Mouloud, Le fils du pauvre (Paris: Seuil, 1982), 120.

65 See Bouamrane and Djidjelli, Scouts Musulmans Algériens, 86–89. See also Louanchi, Salah Louanchi, 21–22; and Kechaï, 60 années de lutte, 18.

66 See Baghli, L'itinéraire, 17.

67 Z’Œil de Lynx, “L’éclaireur.”

68 English-speaking Protestant missions were active, too, in colonial Algeria since the 1880s. On Protestantism in Algeria, see Encrevé, André, “Protestantisme,” in L'Algerie et la France, ed. Verdès-Leroux, Jeannine (Paris: Laffont, 2009), 717–27.

69 On the YMCA and UCJG, see Putney, Clifford, Muscular Christianity: Manhood and Sports in Protestant America, 1880–1920 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003), 4572; and Boulard, Cédric, “Naissance et essor des Unions chrétiennes de jeunes gens (1852–1914),” Bulletin de la Société de l'Histoire du Protestantisme Français 159 (2013): 313–28.

70 See Putney, Muscular Christianity, 127–43.

71 See, e.g., Bromber, Katrin, “‘Muscular Christianity’: The Role of the Ethiopian YMCA Sports in Shaping ‘Modern’ Masculinities (1950s–1970s),” Studies of the Department of African Languages and Cultures 47 (2013): 2944.

72 See Walsh, Sebastian J., “Killing Post-Almohad Man: Malek Bennabi, Algerian Islamism and the Search for a Liberal Governance,” Journal of North African Studies 12 (2007): 235–54. On Bennabi, see also Krais, Jakob, “Bennabi, Malek,” in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Three, ed. Fleet, Kate et al. (Leiden: Brill, 2018).

73 Christelow, Allan, “An Islamic Humanist in the 20th Century: Malik Bennabi,” Maghreb Review 17 (1992): 6983, has erroneously maintained that he was a member of a Catholic organization, misidentifying the UCJG, an error that has been taken up by most later writings on Bennabi. See, e.g., Naylor, Phillip C., “The Formative Influence of French Colonialism on the Life and Thought of Malek Bennabi (Malik bn Nabi),” French Colonial History 7 (2006): 132. In fact, in the Arabic text of his memoir, Bennabi renders the name of the UCJG in a perhaps slightly misleading way as al-Wahda al-Masihiyya li-l-Shubban al-Barisiyyin.

74 See Nabi, Malik Bin, Mudhakkirat Shahid al-Qarn, vol. 2, al-Talib (Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1970), 1620.

75 See Bennabi, Les conditions de la renaissance, 129–31; Quand un Intellectomane parle de Scoutisme,” Bulletin Scouts Musulmans Algériens 2 (1948–49): 4345.

76 See, e.g., Bin Nabi, al-Talib, 35–37.

77 See Chavinier, Sabine, “Histoire du basket-ball français catholique (1911–1921). Jeu des patronages ou sport américain?,” Sciences sociales et sport 1 (2008): 2829.

78 Bin Nabi, al-Talib, 43.

79 See, e.g., Boulos, Samir, “‘A Clean Heart Likes Clean Clothes’: Cleanliness Customs and Conversion in Egypt (1900–1956),” Islam and Christian–Muslim Relations 21 (2010): 315–30.

80 For his positive assessment of the Muslim Brotherhood, see, e.g., Bennabi, Vocation de l'Islam, 83–86.

81 On the history of Catholicism in Algeria, see also Naylor, Phillip C., “Bishop Pierre Claverie and the Risks of Religious Reconciliation,” Catholic Historical Review 96 (2010): 720–42.

82 See Colonna, Fanny, “De la JEC à l'AJAAS. Témoignage,” in De l'Indochine à l'Algérie. La jeunesse en mouvements des deux côtés du miroir colonial 1940–1962, ed. Bancel, Nicolas, Denis, Daniel, and Fatès, Youssef (Paris: La Découverte, 2003), 6567; Louanchi, Salah Louanchi, 48–50, 100–101; Derouiche, Le scoutisme, 177–81; and several articles in Lagha's and Kaddache's paper: Pierre Popie and Pierre Chaulet, “Les Jeunes Algériens à la recherche d'un terrain d'entente,” La Voix des Jeunes, June 1952 (Pierre Chaulet was the brother of Anne-Marie Louanchi); “Le cycle des rencontres Étudiants Musulmans - S.M.A. - Étudiants Catholiques s'est terminé cette année par un camp de trois jours,” La Voix des Jeunes, September 1953; and Atger, Daniel, “Questions coloniales: Témoignages Chrétiens,” Scouts Musulmans Algériens 1 (1948–49). See also Christien and Gauthé, “Paris-Alger.”

83 See Elshakry, Marwa, “The Gospel of Science and American Evangelism in Late Ottoman Beirut,” Past & Present 196 (2007): 173214; Ventura, Lorella, “History, Religion and Progress: The View of the ‘Modernity’ of the American Protestant Missionaries in Late Ottoman Syria,” Middle Eastern Studies 50 (2014): 442–56; Anderson, Betty S., The American University of Beirut: Arab Nationalism and Liberal Education (Austin, Tex.: University of Texas Press, 2011), 119–50; Sharkey, Heather J., American Evangelicals in Egypt: Missionary Encounters in a Age of Empire (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2008), 149–78; and Choueiri, Arab Nationalism, 65–72.

84 See Putney, Muscular Christianity; and Hall, Donald E., ed., Muscular Christianity: Embodying the Victorian Age (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).

85 See, e.g., Makdisi, Ussama, Artillery of Heaven: American Missionaries and the Failed Conversion of the Middle East (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2008); Sedra, Paul, From Mission to Modernity: Evangelicals, Reformers and Education in Nineteenth-Century Egypt (London: I.B.Tauris, 2011); Baron, The Orphan Scandal, 25–96; and Boulos, “A Clean Heart.”

86 For treatments of Catholic actors see Dueck, The Claims of Culture, 51–90; and Watenpaugh, “Scouting.”

87 See Munoz, Laurence, Une histoire du sport catholique. La Fédération Sportive et Culturelle de France 1898–2000 (Paris: L'Harmattan, 2003), 4394. For an overview, see Tranvouez, Yvon, “Le sport catholique en France,” Vingtième Siècle 92 (2006): 171–80.

88 With the exception of Baron, The Orphan Scandal, quoted earlier.

89 See, e.g., Watenpaugh, Being Modern, 279–98; and Dueck, The Claims of Culture, 187–206.

90 See Gauthé, “Le scout est loyal envers son pays.”

91 Jacob, Working Out Egypt, 109.

92 Loup Blanc, “Mot de l'aumônier: Ta B. A. quotidienne,” Le scout cirtéen, January 1934. For a Protestant example, see Z’Œil de Lynx, “Pour éclairer : L’éclaireur - Chevalier des temps modernes,” Le Mowgli, January 1927.

93 Baghli, L'itinéraire, 19–20.

94 See Bouzouzou, Mahmoud, Le dernier messager (Algiers: SMA/Mahteb, 1950); and Bouzouzou, Mahmoud, “Quelques aspects de l'Islam,” Bulletin Scouts Musulmans Algériens 2 (1948–49).

95 Mahmoud Bouzouzou, “12 Rabi Al-Awal 1372 - Anniversaire de la naissance de Mohammed: Esprit et Action, tel est le message du Prophète,” La Voix des Jeunes, November 1952.

96 In Aroua and Illoul, Le groupe Emir Khaled, 54.

97 Mahmoud Bouzouzou, “En marge du réveil de l'Islam: L'Islam est un mode de vie,” La Voix des Jeunes, March 1953. Emphasis in original.

98 Bouzouzou, Mahmoud, “Le culte de l'homme,” Bulletin Scouts Musulmans Algériens 1 (1948–49): 19.

99 Chikh Bouamrane, “L'Esprit missionaire,” al-Hayat, January 1951.

100 P.-M. Sirot, “Prier c'est agir,” Le Chef, February 1942.

101 See Paul Raimbault, “Centenaire de l'Algérie : Aux Jeunes !,” Les Jeunes, 4 May 1930; and Mercier, Le Centenaire, 243–45.

102 See Chavinier, “Histoire du basket-ball,” 28–46; Fatès, Youssef, “Algérie coloniale: les patronages et le sport,” in Sport et loisirs dans les colonies, XIXᵉ-XXᵉ siècles. Asie, Pacifique, océan Indien, Afrique, Caraïbes, ed. Combeau-Mari, Évelyne (Paris: Le Publieur, 2004), 203–18.

103 Tranvouez, “Le sport catholique,” 175. See also Munoz, Une histoire du sport catholique, 113–54.

104 See Laneyrie, Philippe, “Les scouts de France entre les deux guerres. Idéologie, prescriptions et pratiques pédagogiques,” in À l’école de l'aventure. Pratiques sportives de plein air et idéologie de la conquête du monde 1890–1940, ed. Pociello, Christian and Denis, Daniel (Voiron: PUS, 2000), Laneyrie, Philippe, “Les Les scouts de France entre les deux guerres. Idéologie, prescriptions et pratiques pédagogiques,” in À l’école de l'aventure. Pratiques sportives de plein air et idéologie de la conquête du monde 1890–1940, ed. Pociello, Christian and Denis, Daniel (Voiron: Presses universitaires du sport, 2000), 175–84.

105 See F. Bats, “Le mot de M. l'Aumônier Diocésain: Pour la rentrée,” Le scout cirtéen, October 1934; and Sirot, “Prier c'est agir.”

106 See, e.g., M.-D. Forestier, “Le Scoutisme : École de Civisme,” Le Chef, January 1942.

107 See Christien and Gauthé, “Paris-Alger”; Korso, Malika El, “La Guerre de libération nationale et l'Indépendance algérienne au regard de Témoignage chrétien (1954–1962),” in Les indépendances au Maghreb, ed. Mohand-Amer, Amar and Benzenine, Belkacem (Oran: Centre de recherche en anthropologie sociale et culturelle, 2012), 255–75; and Fontaine, Darcie, “Treason or Charity? Christian Missions on Trial and the Decolonization of Algeria,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 44 (2012): 733–53.

108 There are no indications of any reaction to the new Islamic youth movements from the side of such traditionalist religious authorities. Harbi has pointed to the use of sports clubs by traditional notables; see Harbi, Une vie debout, 86–87.

109 I have treated this subject elsewhere and will not be able to go into detail here. See Krais, Jakob, “Girl Guides, Athletes, and Educators: Women and the National Body in Late Colonial Algeria,” Journal of Middle East Women's Studies 15 (2019): 199215.

110 On the EDF in Algeria, see Palluau, “Gardez l'image.”

111 In Bouamrane and Djidjelli, Scouts Musulmans Algériens, 183.

112 Baghli, L'itinéraire, 121.

113 See Mahmoud Bouzouzou, “Religion et Politique,” La Voix des Jeunes, May 1952; and Mahfoud Kaddache, “Apostolat ou démagogie ?,” La Voix des Jeunes, March 1953.

114 In Aroua and Illoul, Le groupe Emir Khaled, 73. See also Louanchi, Salah Louanchi, 37–53; and Harbi, Une vie debout, 54, 73–81.

115 Aït Ahmed, Mémoires, 40.

116 On Lagha, see Aroua and Illoul, Le groupe Emir Khaled, 85–88.

117 See Watanabe, “Organizational Changes,” 46–50, 54–59.

118 See Kechaï, 60 années de lutte, 43–49; and Bouamrane and Djidjelli, Scouts Musulmans Algériens, 115–26.

119 See Kechaï, 60 années de lutte, 20–22.

120 See Watanabe, Shoko, “To be Religious and to be Political in Colonial Algeria: The Ulama and the Nationalists, Two Approaches,” in Secularization, Religion and the State, ed. Haneda, Masashi (Tokyo: University of Tokyo Center for Philosophy, 2010), 119–29.

121 See Watanabe, “The Party of God,” 281–84.

122 The only exception being, ironically, Messali, who had once been the undisputed leader of the nationalist movement, and his supporters. See Rahal, Malika, “Du PPA-MTLD au FLN?,” in Histoire de l'Algérie à la période coloniale 1830–1962, ed. Bouchène, Abderrahmane et al. (Paris: La Découverte, 2014), 547–53.

123 See Harbi, Une vie debout, 75, 81.

Keywords

MUSCULAR MUSLIMS: SCOUTING IN LATE COLONIAL ALGERIA BETWEEN NATIONALISM AND RELIGION

  • Jakob Krais (a1)

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