Published online by Cambridge University Press: 29 January 2009
Roughly around the end of the 7th century, a distinct genre of Islamic literature began to develop under the rubric fadāʾil (“virtues” or “excellences”) that praised the merits, for example, of reciting the Qurʾan, of the Companions of the Prophet, of performing religious duties such as hajj and jihad, and of sacred cities such as Jerusalem. The fadāʾil literature initially was a part of the burgeoning hadith corpus, and the fadāʾ-Qurʾ an traditions appear to be the oldest strand. A variant term for this type of tradition, especially with regard to the Companions of the Prophet, is manāqib (and less frequently, khasāʾ is). A survey of this kind of “praise” literature indicates that the terms manāqib and fadaāʾil could be used fairly interchangeably.
Author's note: An abridged version of this paper was presented at the colloquium Hadith: Texts and History in March, 1998 held at the Centre for Islamic Studies, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.
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60 Al-Fasawī, , Maʿrifa, 1:536; Muslim, Ṣaḥiḥ, 4:1492–93.Google Scholar For traditions that include the Prophet's wives among the ahl al-bayt, notably Umm Salama, see Shayba, Ibn Abī, Musannaf, 6:370, no. 32104Google Scholar; al-Tabarī, al- Muhibb, Dhakhāʾir al-ʿuqba fi manāqib dhawī 'l-qurbā (Jedda, 1995), 55–59.Google Scholar
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91 See, for example, al-Bāqillānī, Tamhīd, 169–73.
92 Al-Jāhiz, ʿUthmāniyya, 145. For a variant tradition concerning the Companion Burayda al-Aslami, see ʿAbd al-Razzāq, Musannaf, 11:225, no. 20388; Mustadrak, 3:110.
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96 11:225, no. 20387.
97 Al-Muḥibb al-Ṭabarī, al-Riyāḍ al-naḍira,, 1:65.
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116 The Zaydi scholar Abu Muhammad al-Qasim al-Rassi (d. 860) wrote several refutations of the Rāfida;cf. GAS, 1:561–63.
118 See al-Qadi, Wadad, “The Development of the Term Ghulat in Muslim Literature with Special Reference to the Kaysāniyya,” in Akten des VII. Kongresses für Arabistik und Islamwissenschaft, Göttingen, 15. bis. 22. August 1974, ed. Dietrich, Albert (Göttingen, 1976), 310–15, and references therein.Google Scholar
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128 CfCrone, Patricia and Hinds, Martin, God's Caliph: Religious Authority in the First Centuries of Islam (Cambridge, 1986).Google Scholar
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