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Postcolonial International Law Discourses on Regional Developments in South and Southeast Asia

  • Diane A. Desierto

Extract

The development of international law in South and Southeast Asia exemplifies myriad ideological strands, historical origins, and significant contributions to contemporary international law doctrines’ formative and codification processes. From the beginnings of South and Southeast Asian participation in the international legal order, international law discourse from these regions has been thematically postcolonial and substantively development-oriented. Postcolonialism in South and Southeast Asian conceptions of international law is an ongoing dialectical project of revisioning international legal thought and its normative directions — towards identifying, collocating, and applying South and Southeast Asian values and philosophical traditions alongside the Euro-American ideologies that, since the classical Post-Westphalian era, have largely infused the content of positivist international law. Of increasing necessity to the intricacies of the postmodern international legal system and its institutions is how the postcolonial project of South and Southeast Asian international legal discourse focuses on areas of international law that create the most urgent development consequences: trade, investment, and the international economic order; the law of the sea and the environment; international humanitarian law, self-determination, socio-economic and cultural human rights.

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1 Arif Dirlik, Postmodernity's Histories: The Past as Legacy and Project (Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc., 2000) 63–89; RP Anand, Studies in International Law and History: An Asian Perspective (Brill Academic Publishers, Massachussetts USA 2004) 24–102; David Fidler, ‘The Asian Century: Implications for International Law', (2005) 9 SYBIL 19–35; Nicholas Onuf, “Tainted by Contingency': Retelling the Story of International Law” in Richard Falk, Lester Edwin J. Ruiz, and RBJ Walker (eds), Reframing the International: Law, Culture, Politics (Routledge, New York, 2002). See also Barry Buzan and Richard Little, “The Idea of ‘International System': Theory Meets History”, (1994) International Political Science Review, Vol. 15, No. 3, 231255.

2 SK Agrawala (tr), TS Rama Rao and JN Saxena, New Horizons of International Law and Developing Countries (N.M. Tripathia Private Limited, 1983); Sienho Yee, ‘The Role of Law in the Formation of Regional Perspectives in Human Rights and Regional Systems for the Protection of Human Rights: The European and Asian Models as Illustrations’ (2004) 8 SYBIL 157164.

3 CH Alexandrowicz, An Introduction to the History of the Law of Nations in the East Indies (16th, 17th, and 18th Centuries), (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1967).

4 CH Alexandrowicz, The Afro-Asian States and International Law, Recueil de Cours, Vol. 123 (1968), 124.

5 RP Anand, Development of Modern International Law and India, (Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden, Germany 2005) 1–5, 2930, 39–40, 5455, 108–109, 121130.

6 Id. at note 5, at 125.

7 Id. at note 5, at 126. See Martti Koskenniemi, The Gentle Civilizer of Nations: The Rise and Fall of International Law 1870–1960 (Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom, 2002).

8 For the seminal work on colonialism's operative effects on positivist conceptions of international law, see Antony Anghie, ‘Finding the Peripheries: Sovereignty and Colonialism in Nineteenth-Century International Law’ (1999) 40 Harv. Int'l L.J. 1–80; Antony Anghie, Imperialism, Sovereignty, and the Making of International Law (Cambridge University Press, 2005).

9 M. Sornarajah, ‘The Asian Perspective to International Law in the Age of Globalization', (2001) 5 SJICL 284–313; Nicholas Tarling, Nations and States in Southeast Asia (Cambridge University Press, 1998), 45111.

10 ASEAN Law Association, ASEAN Legal Systems (Butterworths Asia, 1995); Carmelo V. Sison and Roshan T. Jose (trs), Constitutional and Legal Systems of the ASEAN Countries (University of the Philippines, 1990).

11 Kevin YL Tan, ‘The Making and Remaking of Constitutions in Southeast Asia: An Overview', (2002) 6 SJICL 141.

12 Andrew Harding, “Comparative Law and Legal Transplantation in South East Asia: Making Sense of the ‘Nomic Din” in David Nelken and Johannes Feest (eds), Adapting Legal Cultures (Hart Publishing, Oxford-Portland Oregon, 2001).

13 See Allah Bukhsh Karim Bukhsh Brohi (ed), Five Lectures on Asia and the United Nations (Recueil de Cours, Volume 102, 1968).

14 T.O. Elias, New Horizons in International Law (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1992) 2943.

15 Case Concerning Sovereignty over Pedra Blanca/Pulau Batu Puteh, Middle Rocks, and South Ledge (Malaysia v. Singapore) [2008] ICJ Rep 130; See Case Concerning Sovereignty over Pulau Ligitan and Pulau Sipadan (Indonesia v. Malaysia) [2002] ICJ Rep; Case Concerning the Temple of Preah Vihear (Cambodia v. Thailand) [1962] ICJ Rep 6. See also Hisashi Owada, ‘The Experience of Asia with International Adjudication’ (2005) 9 SYBIL 918.

16 See Jose E. Alvarez, ‘Institutionalized Legalisation and the Asia-Pacific ‘Region', (2007) 5 N.Z.J. Pub. & Int'l L. 9. 17 See Richard A. Falk, “Is the International Legal Order Eurocentric?” in The New States and the International Legal Order, Recueil de Cours, Vol. 118 (1966), 3443.

18 See Martti Koskenniemi, “The Politics of International Law” in Gerry Simpson (ed), The Nature of International Law (Dartmouth Publishing Company, England, 2001).

19 RP Anand, “Jawaharlal Nehru and International Law and Relations” in Studies in International Law and History: An Asian Perspective (Brill Academic Publishers, Massachusetts USA, 2004); Final Communique of the Asian-African Conference, Bandung, 24 April 1955, available at http://www.issafrica.org/AF/RegOrg/unity_to_union/pdfs/asiaafrica/bandung55.pdf (last visited 20 October 2008).

20 Richard A. Falk, The New States and the International Legal Order, Recueil de Cours, Volume 118 (1966), 1025.

21 See George McTurnan Kahin, The Asian-African Conference, Bandung, Indonesia, 1955 (Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 1970).

22 Sisir K. Gupta, ‘Asian Nonalignment’ (November 1965) 362 Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 44–51; Rajen Harshe, ‘India's Non-Alignment: An Attempt at Conceptual Reconstruction’ (February 17–24, 1990) 25 Economic and Political Weekly, 399405.

23 Andrew F. Sunter, ‘TWAIL as Naturalized Epistemological Inquiry’ (2007) 20 Can. J. L. & Juris. 475, at 487–488; see David P. Fidler, ‘Revolt Against or From Within the West? TWAIL, the Developing World, and the Future Direction of International Law’ (2003) 2 Chinese J. Int'l L. 29.

24 B.S. Chimni, “Third World Approaches to International Law: A Manifesto”, in Antony Anghie, Bhupinder Chimni, Karin Mickelson, and Obiora Okafor (eds), The Third World and International Order: Law, Politics and Globalization (Brill Academic Publishers, Leiden, the Netherlands, 2003); Makau Mutua, ‘What is TWAIL?’ (2000) 94 Am. Soc'y Int'l L. Proc. 3140.

25 As a theoretical platform for international legal scholarship, however, TWAIL has not yet gone beyond the level of pure critique. It has not provided concrete alternatives or viable ‘solutions’ to problems of the modern international system. See B.S. Chimni, International Law and World Order: A Critique of Contemporary Approaches (Sage Publications, Newbury Park, California, 1993).

26 Outi Korhonen, ‘The Role of History in International Law’ (2000) 94 Am. Soc'y Int'l L. Proc. 4546.

27 Nagendra Singh, “India and International Law” in RP Anand (ed), Asian States and the Development of Universal International Law (Vikas Publications, Delhi, India, 1972).

28 V.S. Mani, ‘An Indian Perspective on the Evolution of International Law on the Threshold of the Third Millenium’ (2000) 9 Asian Y.B. Int'l L. 3177.

29 RP Anand, Development of Modern International Law and India (Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden Germany 2005), 2830.

30 Id. at note 19.

31 Id.; see Onuma Yasuaki, ‘When Was the Law of International Society Born? An Inquiry of the History of International Law from an Intercivilizational Perspective’ (2000) 2 J. Hist. Int'l L. 1.

32 Id. at note 16.

33 Id. at note 19, at 34.

34 Id. at note 2; see Ingrid Detter, ‘The Problem of Unequal Treaties’ (1966) 15 Int'l & Comp. L. Q. 10691089.

35 Id. at note 19, at 3841.

36 Id. at note 16, at 36–37. Id. at note 17.

37 Id. at note 19. RP Anand, Development of Modern International Law and India (Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden Germany, 2005), 3540.

38 RP Anand, Development of Modern International Law and India (Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden Germany, 2005), 39.

39 Right of Passage over Indian Territory (Portugal v. India) (Merits) [1960] ICJ Rep 6.

40 Edward Keene, Beyond the Anarchical Society: Grotius, Colonialism and Order in World Politics (Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom, 2002), 7696.

41 RP Anand, “Equality of States in an Unequal World: A Historical Perspective”, in Sovereign Equality of States, Recueil de Cours, Vol. 197 (1986), 52100.

42 Christos Theodoropoulos, Colonialism and General International Law: The Contemporary Theory of National Sovereignty and Self-determination (New Horizon Publishing House, Benin, Nigeria, 1988), 23. See also Lauren Benton, Law and Colonial Cultures (Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom, 2002), 130.

43 Id. at note 19. Id. at note 20, pp. 6569. See Island of Palmas case (Netherlands v. USA), 4 April 1928, II RIAA 829–871, at 839. Full text available at http://untreaty.un.org/cod/riaa/cases/vol_II/829-871.pdf (last visited 20 October 2008).

44 RP Anand, Development of Modern International Law and India (Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden Germany, 2005), 5455.

45 Peter Fitzpatrick, ‘Terminal Legality: Imperialism and the (de)composition of Law” in Diane Kirkby and Catharine Coleborne, Law, History, Colonialism: The Reach of Empire (Manchester University Press, United Kingdom, 2001).

46 Id. at note 18, at 56.

47 Pemmaraju Sreenivasa Rao, “The Indian Position on Some General Principles of International Law”, in Bimal N. Patel (ed), India and International Law (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Leiden, the Netherlands, 2005).

48 RP Anand, Development of Modern International Law and India(Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden Germany, 2005), 7884.

49 M.S. Nawaz, The Changing Law of Nations: An Indian Focus (Eastern Law House, Calcutta, India, 2000), 7–9. See also S.K. Agarwala, India's Contribution to the Development of International Law — the Role of Indian Courts, in RP Anand (ed), Asian States and the Development of International Law (Vikas Publications, Delhi, India, 1972).

50 Id. at note 9. See Iza Hussin, ‘The Pursuit of Perak Regalia: Islam, Law, and the Politics of Authority in the Colonial State’ (2007) 32 Law & Soc. Inquiry 759–784; Sally Engle Merry, ‘Law and Colonialism’ (1991) 25 Law & Soc'y Rev. 889920.

51 See H.S. Bhatia, Origin and Development of Legal and Political System in India (Deep & Deep Publications, New Delhi, India, 1976); Hamid Khan, Constitutional and Political History of Pakistan (Oxford University Press, United Kingdom, 2001).

52 See Francis Robinson, Islam, South Asia and the West (Oxford University Press, United States, 2008); Sugata Bose and Ayesha Jalal, Modern South Asia: History, Culture, and Political Economy (2nd ed., Routledge, United Kingdom, 2004).

53 See Francis Robinson (ed), The Cambridge Encyclopedia of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, and the Maldives (Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom, 1989).

54 Richard Sisson and Leo E. Rose, War and Secession: Pakistan, India, and the Creation of Bangladesh (University of California Press, California, United States, 1990).

55 UNSC Res 47 (21 April 1948) UN Doc/S/RES/726.

56 See Mridu Rai, Hindu Rulers, Muslim Subjects: Islam, Rights, and the History of Kashmir (Princeton University Press, New Jersey, United States 2004); H.S. Gururaja Rao, Legal Aspects of the Kashmir Problem (Minerva Press, New Delhi, India 2002); Victoria Schofield, Kashmir in Conflict: India, Pakistan and the Unending War (I.B. Tauris, London, 2003).

57 Id. at note 46, at 35.

58 Id. at note 46, at 36. Upon Pakistan's request, the Court discontinued proceedings after Pakistan and India reached a negotiated settlement. Trial of Pakistani Prisoners of War (Pakistan v. India) Order of 15 December 1973, [1973] ICJ Rep 347.

59 Id. at note 46 at 36–37. Aerial Incident of 10 August 1999 (Pakistan v. India) (Jurisdiction) [2000] ICJ Rep 12.

60 For a concise issue summary on India's succession to treaties concluded by British India, see M.K. Nawaz, The Changing Law of Nations: An Indian Focus (Eastern Law House Ltd., Calcutta, India, 2000), 1218.

61 UNGA Res 1514 (XV) (14 December 1960). Full text available at http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/c_coloni.htm (last visited 20 October 2008). See also Zoltán Szilágyi, The United Nations’ Role in the Liquidation of Colonialism (Institute for World Economy of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary, 1986), 2785.

62 RP Anand, Development of Modern International Law and India (Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden Germany, 2005), 103104.

63 Id. at note 46, at 3839.

64 The five principles are: 1) mutual respect for territorial integrity and sovereignty; 2) mutual non-aggression; 3) mutual non-interference in internal affairs; 3) equality and mutual benefit; and 5) peaceful coexistence. RP Anand, Development of Modern International Law and India (Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden, Germany, 2005), 101114.

65 Id. at note 18. See Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia, Indonesia, 24 February 1976 (full text available at http://www.aseansec.org/1217.htm, last visited 20 October 2008) [hereafter, TAC]; Charter of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, Bangladesh, 8 December 1985 (full text available at http://www.saarc-sec.org/data/docs/charter.pdf, last visited 20 October 2008) [hereafter, SAARC Charter].

66 Jagdish Bhagwati (ed), The New International Economic Order: The North-South Debate (MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachussetts, United States, 1977); T.S. Rama Rao, “The New International Economic Order and the North-South Dialogue” in S.K. Agrawala, T.S. Rama Rao, and J.N. Saxena (trs), New Horizons of International Law and Developing Countries (International Law Association, N.M. Tripathi Private Ltd., India, 1983); R.C. Hingorani, “New International Economic Order”, in S.K. Agrawala, T.S. Rama Rao, and J.N. Saxena (trs), New Horizons of International Law and Developing Countries (International Law Association, N.M. Tripathi Private Ltd., India, 1983).

67 UNGA Res 3201(S-VI) (1974) UN Doc A/RES/S-6/3201.

68 UNGA Res 3202 (S-VI) (1974) UN Doc A/RES/S-6/3202; UNGA Res 3281 (XXIX) (1974), UN GAOR 29th Session Supp 31, 50.

69 Article III, SAARC Charter.

70 Article IV, SAARC Charter.

71 Article V(1), SAARC Charter.

72 Articles V and VI, SAARC Charter.

73 Nihal Rodrigo, “SAARC as an institutional framework for cooperation in South Asia”, in Ramesh Thakur and Oddny Wiggen (trs), South Asia in the World: Problem Solving Perspectives on Security, Sustainable Development and Good Governance (United Nations University Press, New York, United States, 2004).

74 Preamble, last clause, SAARC Social Charter. Full text available at http://www.saarc-sec.org/main.php?id=13 (last visited 20 October 2008).

75 Article III(1), SAARC Social Charter.

76 Article III(4), SAARC Social Charter.

77 Article IV(1) and IV(4), SAARC Social Charter.

78 Article VI, SAARC Social Charter.

79 Article VII, SAARC Social Charter.

80 Articles VIII and IX, SAARC Social Charter.

81 Article X, SAARC Social Charter.

82 See Dr. O.P. Goel (ed), India and SAARC Engagements (Volumes 1–2) (Isha Books, Delhi, India, 2004).

83 Preamble, first clause, SAARC Charter.

84 Articles X(1) and X(2), SAARC Charter.

85 Id. at note 69.

86 Niaz A. Naik, “A Security Organization for South Asia: Mechanism for Conflict Resolution in South Asia”, in Ramesh Thakur and Oddny Wiggen (trs), South Asia in the World: Problem Solving Perspectives on Security, Sustainable Development and Good Governance (United Nations University Press, New York, United States, 2004). See also D. Suba Chandran and P.R. Chari (trs), Armed Conflicts in South Asia 2008: Growing Violence (Routledge, India, April 2008); Armed Conflict Database, International Institute for Strategic Studies, available at http://www.iiss.org/ (last visited 25 October 2008); Kingsley de Silva, “Terrorism and Political Agitation in Post-colonial South Asia: Jammu-Kashmir and Sri Lanka”, in Ramesh Thakur and Oddny Wiggen (trs), South Asia in the World: Problem Solving Perspectives on Security, Sustainable Development and Good Governance (United Nations University Press, New York, United States, 2004).

87 Lok Raj Baral, “National Security: Inter-State Conflict in South Asia (a Nepali Perspective)”, in Ramesh Thakur and Oddny Wiggen (trs), South Asia in the World: Problem Solving Perspectives on Security, Sustainable Development and Good Governance (United Nations University Press, New York, United States, 2004).

88 See Stephen P. Cohen, “Nuclear weapons and nuclear war in South Asia: Unknowable futures”, and Christophe Carle, “International security in a nuclear South Asia”, both in Ramesh Thakur and Oddny Wiggen (trs), South Asia in the World: Problem Solving Perspectives on Security, Sustainable Development and Good Governance (United Nations University Press, New York, United States, 2004).

89 Satish Nambiar, “South Asian Contributions to United Nations Peacekeeping Operations, with particular reference to India's participation”, and Syed Fatemy Ahmed Roomy, “The United Nations and South Asia: Bangladesh's contribution to UN Peacekeeping”, both in Ramesh Thakur and Oddny Wiggen (trs), South Asia in the World: Problem Solving Perspectives on Security, Sustainable Development and Good Governance (United Nations University Press, New York, United States, 2004).

90 RP Anand, “South Asia and the Law of the Sea: Problems and Prospects”, in RP Anand, Studies in International Law and History: An Asian Perspective (Brill Academic Publishers, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Leiden, the Netherlands, 2004).

91 Id. at note 90. See B.R. Chauhan, “Fixation and Delimitation of Maritime Frontiers” in S.K. Agrawala, T.S. Rama Rao, and J.N. Saxena (trs), New Horizons of International Law and Developing Countries (International Law Association, N.M. Tripathi Private Ltd., India, 1983).

92 Article 7(2): “Where because of the presence of a delta and other natural conditions the coastline is highly unstable, the appropriate points may be selected along the furthest seaward extent of the low-water line and, notwithstanding subsequent regression of the low-water line, the straight baselines shall remain effective until changed by the coastal State in accordance with this Convention.”

93 Id. at note 90. See D.W. Wadegaonkar, “Changing Concept of the Determination of Maritime Frontiers and the Delimitation of Maritime Boundaries”, in S.K. Agrawala, T.S. Rama Rao, and J.N. Saxena (trs), New Horizons of International Law and Developing Countries (International Law Association, N.M. Tripathi Private Ltd., India, 1983).

94 Id. at note 90.

95 UNCLOS (1982), Agreement Relating to the Implementation of Part XI of the Convention, Article 69 (Right of Landlocked States). Full text available at http://www.un.org/Depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/closindx.htm (last visited 10 October 2008). See V.C. Govindaraj, “Land-Locked States and the Law of the Sea” in S.K. Agrawala, T.S. Rama Rao, and J.N. Saxena (trs), New Horizons of International Law and Developing Countries (International Law Association, N.M. Tripathi Private Ltd., India, 1983).

96 See Shyami Fernando Puvimanasinghe, Foreign Investment, Human Rights, and the Enviroment: A Perspective from South Asia on the Role of Public International Law for Development (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Leiden, Boston, 2007); Lakshman Guruswamy, “Environment and Trade: Competing Paradigms in International Law”, in Antony Anghie and Garry Sturgess (trs), Legal Visions of the 21st Century: Essays in Honour of Judge Christopher Weeramantry (Kluwer Law International, the Hague, Boston, 1998).

97 See A. David Ambrose, “International Environmental Law and India”, in Bimal N. Patel (ed), India and International Law (Brill Academic Publishers, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, the Netherlands, 2005).

98 Id. at note 97. See Alexander J. Bolla and Ted L. McDorman (trs), Comparative Asian Environmental Law Anthology (Carolina Academic Press, Durham, North Carolina, United States, 1999); Mochtar Kusuma-Atmadja, Thomas A. Mensah, and Bernard H. Oxman (trs), Sustainable Development and the Preservation of the Oceans: The Challenges of UNCLOS and Agenda 21 (Law of the Sea Institute, William S. Richardson School of Law, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, 1997).

99 See http://www.sacep.org/html/about_overview.htm (last visited 20 October 2008).

100 C. Jayaraj, ‘The Law of Outer Space and India” in Bimal N. Patel (ed), India and International Law (Brill Academic Publishers, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, the Netherlands, 2005); J.N. Singh, Outer Space, Outer Sea, Outer Land and International Law (Harnam, New Delhi, 1987); P.P.C. Haanappel, The Law and Policy of Air Space and Outer Space: A Comparative Approach (Kluwer Law International, the Hague, New York, 2003).

101 Upendra Baxi, “Teaching of International Law in India in 2000 A.D. – Some Non-Utopian Proposals”, in K. Agrawala, T.S. Rama Rao, and J.N. Saxena (trs), New Horizons of International Law and Developing Countries (International Law Association, N.M. Tripathi Private Ltd., India, 1983). See also M.K. Nawaz, “On the Ways and Means of Improving Research of International Law in India”, in “, in K. Agrawala, T.S. Rama Rao, and J.N. Saxena (trs), New Horizons of International Law and Developing Countries (International Law Association, N.M. Tripathi Private Ltd., India, 1983).

102 Kl Vibhute, ‘International Law in India – Developing Curricula and Teaching: Some Reflections’ (2001) 5 Sing. J. Int'l & Comp. L. 388404.

103 BS Chimni, ‘Teaching, Research, and Promotion of International Law in India: Past, Present, and Future’ (2001) 5 Sing. J. Int'l & Comp. L. 368387.

104 See Amry Vandenbosch, ‘Regionalism in Southeast Asia’ (1946) The Far Eastern Quarterly, Volume 5, No. 4, 427438.

105 M.B. Hooker, A Concise Legal History of Southeast Asia (Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York, 1978); see also Nicholas Tarling (ed), The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia: From early times to c. 1500 (Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom, 1999).

106 Barbara Watson Andaya, “Historicising ‘Modernity’ in Southeast Asia” (1997) Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, Volume 40, No. 4, 391409.

107 See Victor Lieberman, ‘Local Integration and Eurasian Analogies: Structuring Southeast Asian History, c. 1350 – c. 1830', (1993) Modern Asian Studies, Volume 27, No. 3, 475572.

108 Id. at note 105. See also Craig J. Reynolds, ‘A New Look at Old Southeast Asia’ (1995) The Journal of Asian Studies, Volume 54, No. 2, 419446.

109 MB. Hooker, Laws of Southeast Asia: Volumes 1 and 2 (Butterworth Legal Publishers, Singapore, 1986–1988).

110 Graham Hassall and Cheryl Saunders, Asia-Pacific Constitutional Systems (Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom, 2002) 1417.

111 See Tony Day and Craig J. Reynolds, ‘Cosmologies, Truth Regimes, and the State in Southeast Asia’ (2000) Modern Asian Studies, Volume 34, No. 1, 155.

112 M.B. Hooker, A Concise Legal History of Southeast Asia (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1978), 1–14, at 9: “The Southeast Asian legal world is thus a world of conflict of laws. This was not always so: in the pre-European period there was a coexistence of legal ideas which occasionally resulted in a blend of principle; conflict was not invetiable. Even in the case of formally exclusive systems, such as Islamic law, accommodations did take place.” See Richard A. Gard, ‘Ideological Problems in Southeast Asia’ (1953) Philosophy East and West, Volume 2, No. 4, 292307.

113 T.N. Harper, ‘Asian Values and Southeast Asian Histories’ (1997) The Historical Journal, Volume 40, No. 2, 507517. See also G. Carter Bentley, ‘Indigenous States of Southeast Asia’ (1986) Annual Review of Anthropology, Volume 15, 275305.

114 Id. at note 106, at 19–21. Portuguese colonial enclaves were in Goa, Diu, Daman, Calicut, Colombo, Malacca, Macau, Java, the Moluccas, and Timor, with a lease relationship with China covering Macau; British colonies in Penang, Singapore, the Malay states, British Borneo and Burma, with a lease relationship with China covering Hong Kong; French holdings were Laos and Vietnam as regions of Indochina; and Spain held the Philippines until their cession of the territory to the United States in 1898.

115 Id. at note 106, at 27.

116 See Paul Kelemen, ‘Southeast Asia Between the Superpowers’ (1981) Economic and Political Weekly, Volume 16, No. 37, 15031508;

117 Sompong Sucharitkul, ‘ASEAN Society, A Dynamic Experiment for Southeast Asian Regional Cooperation’ (1991) 1 Asian Y.B. Int'l L. 113–148, at 121. See Nicholas Tarling, Regionalism in Southeast Asia: To Foster the Political Will (Routledge, United Kingdom, 2006).

118 See David Brown, ‘From Peripheral Communities to Ethnic Nations: Separatism in Southeast Asia’ (1988) Pacific Affairs, Volume 61, No. 1, 5177; Vincent K. Pollard, ‘ASA and ASEAN, 1961–1967: Southeast Asian Regionalism’ (1970) Asian Survey, Volume 10, No.3, 244255.

119 Norman D. Palmer, The New Regionalism in Asia and the Pacific (Lexington Books, Canada, United States, 1991), 5974.

120 See Treaty of Amity and Cooperatiom in Southeast Asia [hereafter, TAC], Indonesia, 24 February 1976 (full text at http://www.aseansec.org/1217.htm last visited 20 August 2008); ASEAN Declaration, Bangkok, Thailand, 8 August 1967 (full text at http://www.aseansec.org/1212/htm last visited 20 August 2008).

121 TAC, Articles 1 and 2.

122 Leszek Buszynski, ‘Southeast Asia in the post-Cold War Era: Regionalism and Security’ (1992) Asian Survey, Volume 32, No. 9, 830847. See Nicholas Tarling, Regionalism in Southeast Asia: To Foster the Political Will (Routledge, United Kingdom, 2006).

123 See Paul J. Davidson, ASEAN: The Evolving legal Framework for Economic Cooperation (Times Academic Press, Singapore, 2002); ASEAN Law Association, ASEAN Legal Systems (Butterworths Asia, 1995); Alan Khee-jin Tan, ‘Recent Institutional Developments on the Environment in Southeast Asia – A Report Card on the Region’ (2002) Sing. J. Int'l & Comp. L. 6, 891908.

124 See ARF overview at http://www.aseanregionalforum.org/AboutUs/tabid/57/Default.aspx (last visited 20 August 2007).

125 See Zone of Peace, Freedom, and Neutrality Declaration, Kuala Lumpur, 27 November 1971.

Full text at: http://www.aseansec.org/1215.htm (last visited 18 August 2007); Treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone, Bangkok, Thailand, 15 December 1995. Full text at: http://www.aseansec.org/2082.htm (last visited 18 August 2007).

126 See Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 4 November 2002.

127 See overview of ARF history and developments at http://www.aseansec.org/92.htm (last visited 18 August 2007).

128 Full text at: http://www.aseansec.org/1814.htm (last visited 18 August 2007).

129 See Hanoi Plan of Action, Hanoi, Vietnam, 15 December 1988. Full text at: http://www.aseansec.org/687.htm (last visited 18 August 2007); Agreement on the Common Effective Preferential Tariff (CEPT) Scheme for the ASEAN Free Trade Area, Singapore, 28 January 1992. Full text at: http://www.aseansec.org/1164.htm (last visited 18 August 2007); Protocol to Amend the Framework Agreement on Enhancing ASEAN Economic Cooperation, Thailand, 15 December 1995. Full text at: http://www.aseansec.org/2083.htm (last visited 18 August 2007).

130 Singapore Declaration on the ASEAN Charter, 20 November 2007.

131 Cebu Declaration on the Blueprint of the ASEAN Charter, 13 January 2007.

132 Latest macroeconomic indicators from http://www.aseansec.org (last visited 28 May 2008).

133 ASEAN Charter, Chapter XIII, Article 47(4).

134 CASANOVAS, ORIOL. UNITY AND PLURALISM IN PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW. (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2001), at pp. 124125.

135 “ASEAN to Pursue Constructive Engagement With Myanmar after Power Struggle”, October 25, 2004, at http://www.aseansec.org/afp/78.htm (last visited 28 May 2008).

136 Full text at: http://www.aseansec.org/1814.htm (last visited 18 August 2007).

137 Hanoi Plan of Action, Hanoi, Vietnam, 15 December 1988. Full text at: http://www.aseansec.org/687.htm (last visited 18 August 2007); Agreement on the Common Effective Preferential Tariff (CEPT) Scheme for the ASEAN Free Trade Area, Singapore, 28 January 1992. Full text at: http://www.aseansec.org/1164.htm (last visited 18 August 2007); Protocol to Amend the Framework Agreement on Enhancing ASEAN Economic Cooperation, Thailand, 15 December 1995. Full text at: http://www.aseansec.org/2083.htm (last visited 18 August 2007).

138 “Draft ASEAN Charter calls for human rights body, upholds noninterference policy”, The Associated Press, November 8, 2007, at http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/11/09/asia/AS-GEN-ASEAN-Charter.php (last visited 28 May 2008).

139 ASEAN Charter, Chapter II, Article 3.

140 ASEAN Charter, Chapter I, Article 1(7).

141 ASEAN Charter, Chapter 1, Articles 2(2h) and 2(2i).

142 ASEAN Charter, Chapter 1, Articles 2(2j), 2(2k), 2(21), 2(2m), 2(2n).

143 ASEAN Charter, Chapter IV, Article 7, and Chapter VII, Article 20.

144 ASEAN Charter, Chapter IV, Article 8.

145 ASEAN Charter, Chapter IV, Article 9.

146 ASEAN Charter, Chapter IV, Articles 10, 11, 12, 13, 15.

147 ASEAN Charter, Chapter IV, Article 14.

148 ASEAN Charter, Chapter III, Article 5(2), Chapter VIII, Articles 2328.

149 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, Article 18(1).

150 See http://www.unhcr.org (last visited 18 August 2007) for the status of ASEAN member states’ signatures, ratifications, accessions to the ‘core’ human rights treaties on civil and political rights.

151 See Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, 5, U.N. Doc. A/CONF.157/23. Full text at: http://www.ohchr.org/english/law/vienna.htm (last visited 23 August 2007); UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, Articles 2, 4, and 5.

152 Under the CEPT scheme, the ASEAN Free Trade Area does not apply a common external tariff on imported goods. ASEAN members can apply a tariff rate of 0 to 5 percent on goods originating within ASEAN, while they can impose tariffs based on their national schedules for goods entering outside of ASEAN. Exclusions from the CEPT scheme are optional upon ASEAN members for temporary exclusions, sensitive agricultural products, and some general exceptions. See http://www.aseansec.org (last visited 28 May 2008).

153 Thio, Li-ann. “Implementing Human Rights in ASEAN Countries: ‘Promises to Keep and Miles to Go Before I Sleep”, 2 Yale Hum. Rts. & Dev. L.J. 1 (1999).

154 ASEAN Charter, Chapter II (Legal Personality), Article 3.

155 ASEAN Charter, Chapter VI, Article 17. Chapter VI, Article 19(2) also provides that “the conditions of immunities and privileges of the Permanent Representatives and officials on ASEAN duties shall be governed by the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations or in accordance with the national law of the ASEAN State concerned.”

156 Preamble to the ASEAN Charter, Seventh Clause.

157 ASEAN Charter, Chapter I, Article 2 (Principles), Section 2(i).

158 ASEAN Charter, Chapter I, Article 2 (Principles), Section 2(h).

159 ASEAN Charter, Chapter III (Membership), Article 5(2)

160 ASEAN Charter, Chapter VII (Decision-Making), Article 20(1).

161 ASEAN Charter, Chapter VII, Article 20(2).

162 KLABBERS, JAN. AN INTRODUCTION TO INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONAL LAW. (Cambridge University Press, 2002), at Pp. 54 57. See also Reparation of Injuries Suffered in the Service of the United Nations, Advisory Opinion, ICJ Reports 1949, p. 178179, and 185.

163 KLABBERS, at pp. 311312.

* Law Reform Specialist, Institute of International Legal Studies, University of the Philippines Law Center; Professorial Lecturer (Public International Law, Legal History, Administrative Law, Agency & Partnership), Lyceum of the Philippines College of Law and University of the Philippines College of Law; BS Economics, summa cum laude, University of the Philippines; LLB, cum laude, University of the Philippines; LLM Candidate, Yale Law School, 2008–2009. With deep gratitude to Teresa Miguel (Librarian for Foreign and International Law, Lillian Goldman Law Library, Yale Law School) for valuable research exchanges.

Postcolonial International Law Discourses on Regional Developments in South and Southeast Asia

  • Diane A. Desierto

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