Skip to main content Accessibility help

Gypsum-hosted endolithic communities of the Lake St. Martin impact structure, Manitoba, Canada: spectroscopic detectability and implications for Mars

  • T. Rhind (a1), J. Ronholm (a2), B. Berg (a1), P. Mann (a1), D. Applin (a1), J. Stromberg (a3), R. Sharma (a1), L.G. Whyte (a2) and E.A. Cloutis (a1)...


There is increasing evidence that Mars may have once been a habitable environment. Gypsum is targeted in the search for Martian biosignatures because it can host extensive cryptoendolithic communities in extreme terrestrial environments and is widespread on Mars. In this study the viability of using different spectroscopy-based techniques to identify the presence of gypsum endolithic communities was investigated by analysing various cryptoendoliths collected from the Lake St. Martin impact crater (LSM), a Mars analogue site found in Manitoba, Canada. Concurrently, the cryptoendolithic microbial community structure present was also analysed to aid in assigning spectroscopic features to microbial community members. Two main morphologies of endolithic communities were collected from gypsum deposits at LSM: true cryptoendolithic communities and annular deposits on partially buried boulders and cobbles <1 cm below the soil surface. Endolithic communities were found to be visibly present only in gypsum with a high degree of translucency and could occur as deep as 3 cm below the exterior surface. The bacterial community was dominated by a phylum (Chloroflexi) that has not been previously observed in gypsum endoliths. The exterior surfaces of gypsum boulders and cobbles are devoid of spectroscopic features attributable to organic molecules and detectable by reflectance, Raman, or ultraviolet-induced fluorescence spectroscopies. However, exposed interior surfaces show unique endolithic signatures detectable by each spectroscopic technique. This indicates that cryptoendolithic communities can be detected via spectroscopy-based techniques, provided they are either partially or fully exposed and enough photon–target interactions occur to enable detection.


Corresponding author


Hide All
Allwood, A.C., Burch, I.W., Rouchy, J.M. & Coleman, M. (2013). Morphological biosignatures in gypsum: diverse formation processes of messinian (~6.0 Ma) gypsum stromatolites. Astrobiology 13(9), 870886.
Bannatyne, B.B. (1959). Gypsum-anhydrite deposits of Manitoba. Manitoba Mines Branch 258, 46.
Bannatyne, B.B. & McCabe, H.R. (1984). Manitoba crater revealed. GEOS 13, 1013.
Barbieri, R. & Stivaletta, N. (2011). Continental evaporites and the search for evidence of life on Mars. Geol. J. 46, 513524.
Battler, M.M., Osinski, G.R. & Banerjee, N.R. (2013). Mineralogy of saline perennial cold spring on Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut, Canada and implications for spring deposits on Mars. Icarus 224, 364381.
Bell, J.F. et al. (2003). Mars exploration rover athena panoramic camera (Pancam) investigation. J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8063. DOI: 10.1029/2003JE002070, E12.
Berenblut, B.J., Dawson, P. & Wilkinson, G.R. (1973). A comparison of the Raman spectra of anhydrite (CaSO4) and gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O). Spectrochim. Acta 29A, 2936.
Boison, G., Mergel, A., Jolkver, H. & Bothe, H. (2004). Bacterial life and dinitrogen fixation at a gypsum rock. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70(12), 70707077.
Boomer, S.M., Lodge, D.P., Dutton, B.E. & Pierson, B. (2002). Molecular characterization of novel red green nonsulfur bacteria from five distinct hot spring communities in Yellowstone National Park. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68(1), 346355.
Botero, L.M., Brown, K.B., Brumefielf, S., Burr, M., Castenholz, R.W., Young, M. & McDermott, T.R. (2004). Thermobaculum terrenum gen. nov., sp, nov.: a non-phototrophic gram-positive thermophile representing an environmental clone group related to the Chloroflexi (green non-sulfur bacteria) and Thermomicrobia. Arch. Microbiol. 181, 269277.
Bryant, D.A. & Frigaard, N.U. (2006). Prokaryotic photosynthesis and phototrophy illuminated. Trends Microbial 14(11), 488496.
Bryant, D.A. et al. (2007). Candidatus Chloracidobacterium thermophilum: an aerobic phototrophic acidobacterium. Science 317, 523526.
Cady, L.S., Farmer, J.D., Grotzinger, J.P., Schopf, J.W. & Steele, A. (2003). Morphological biosignatures and the search for life on Mars. Astrobiology 3(2), 351368.
Campanella, L., Cubadda, F., Sammartino, M.P. & Saoncella, A. (2000). An algal biosensor for the monitoring of water toxicity in estuarine environments. Water Res. 35, 6976.
Canfield, D.E., Sørensen, K.B. & Oren, A. (2004). Biogeochemistry of a gypsum-encrusted microbial ecosystem. Geobiology 2, 133150.
Carter, J., Poulet, F., Bibring, J.P., Mangold, N. & Murchie, S. (2013). Hyfrous minerals on Mars as seen by the CRISM and OMEGA imagine spectrometers: updated global view. J. Geophys. Res., Planets 118, 128.
Choi, D.W. et al. (2010). Spectral and thermodynamic properties of methanobactin from γ- proteobacterial methan oxidizing bacteria: a case for copper competition on a molecular level. J. Inorg. Biochem. 104, 12401247.
Cloutis, E.A. et al. (2006). Detection and discrimination of sulphate minerals using reflectance spectroscopy. Icarus 184, 121157.
Cloutis, E.A., Craig, M.A., Mustard, J.F., Kruzelecky, R.V., Jamroz, W.R., Scott, A., Bish, D.L., Poulet, F., Bebring, J.P. & King, P.L. (2007). Stability of hydrated minerals on Mars. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L20202.
Cloutis, E.A., Craig, M.A., Kruzelecky, R.V., Jamroz, W.R., Scott, A., Hawthorne, F.C. & Mertzman, S.A. (2008). Spectral reflectance properties of minerals exposed to simulated Mars surface conditions. Icarus 195, 140168.
Cloutis, E.A., Berard, G., Mann, P. & Stromberg, J. (2011). The Gypsumville – Lake St. Martin impact structure: Shocked carbonates, intracrater evaporates and cryptoendoliths. In Analogue sites for Mars Special Meeting, the 42nd Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, The Woodlands, Texas. Abstract #6009.
Cockell, C.S., Lee, P., Osinski, G., Horneck, G. & Broady, P. (2002). Impact-induced microbial endolithic habitats. Meteor. Planet. Sci. 37, 12871298.
Cockell, C.S., Scheurger, A.C., Billi, D., Friedmann, E.I. & Panitz, C. (2005). Effects of a simulated Martian UV flux on the cyanobacterium, Chroococcidiopsis sp. 029. Astrobiology 5(2), 127140.
Cockell, C.S., Osinski, G.R., Banerjee, N.R., Howard, K.T., Gilmour, I. & Watson, J.S. (2010). The microbe-mineral environment and gypsum neogenesis in a weathered polar evaporite. Geobiology 8, 293308.
Cogdell, R.J., Howard, T.D., Bittl, R., Schlodder, E., Geisenheimer, I. & Lubitz, W. (2000). How carotenoids protect bacterial photosynthesis. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 355(1402), 13451349.
Costello, E.K. & Schmidt, S.K. (2006). Microbial diversity in alpine tundra wet meadow soil: novel Chloroflexi from a cold, water-saturated environment. Environ. Microbiol. 8, 1471–86.
Dartnell, L.R. et al. (2012). Experimental determination of photostability and fluorescence-based detection of PAHs on the Martian surface. Meteor. Planet. Sci. 47, 806819.
Dartnell, L.R. & Patel, M.R. (2013). Degradation of microbial fluorescence biosignatures by solar ultraviolet radiation on Mars. Int. J. Astrobiol. 13, 112.
Davis, W.L. & McKay, C.P. (1996). Origins of life: a comparison of theories and application to Mars. Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. 26, 6173.
Delaye, L. & Lazcano, A. (2005). Prebiological evolution and the physics of the origin of life. Phys. Life Rev. 2, 4764.
de Vera, J.P., Duali, S., Kereszturi, A., Konca, L., Lorek, A., Mohlmann, D., Marschall, M. & Pocs, T. (2013). Results on the survival of cryptobiotic cyanobacteria samples after exposure to Mars-like environmental conditions. Int. J. Astrobiol. 13, 3544.
Dong, H., Rech, J.A., Jiang, H., Sun, H. & Buck, B.J. (2007). Endolithic cyanobacteria in soil gypsum: occurrences in Atacama (Chile), Mojave (United States), and Al-Jafr Basin (Jordan) deserts. J. Geophys. Res. 112(G2), G02030.
Douglas, S., Abbey, W., Mieke, R., Conrad, P. & Kanik, I. (2008). Textural and mineralogical biosignatures in an unusual microbialite from Death Valley, California. Icarus 193, 620636.
Edwards, H.G.M. (2010). Raman spectroscopic approach to analytical astrobiology: the detection of key geological and biomolecular markers in the search for life. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 368, 30593065.
Edwards, H.G.M., Newton, E.M., Wynn-Williams, D.D., Dickensheets, D., Schoen, C. & Crowder, C. (2003). Laser wavelength selection for Raman spectroscopy of microbial pigments in situ in Antarctic desert ecosystem analogues of former habitats on Mars. Int. J. Astrobiol. 1(4), 333348.
Edwards, H.G.M., Jorge Villar, S.E., Parnell, J., Cockell, C. & Lee, P. (2005a). Raman spectroscopic analysis of cyanobacterial gypsum halotrophs and relevance for sulfate deposits on Mars. Analyst 130, 917923.
Edwards, H.G.M., Moody, C.D., Jorge Villar, S.E. & Wynn-Williams, D.D. (2005b). Raman spectroscopic detection of key biomarkers of cyanobacteria and lichen symbiosis in extreme Antarctic habitats: evaluation for Mars lander missions. Icarus 174, 560571.
Ellery, A., Kolb, C., Lammer, H., Parnell, J., Edwards, H., Richter, L., Patel, M., Romstedt, J., Dickensheets, D., Steele, A. & Cockell, C. (2003). Astrobiological instrumentation for Mars – the only way is down. Int. J. Astrobiol. 1(4), 365380.
Farmer, J.D. & Des Marias, D.J. (1999). Exploring for a record of ancient Martian life. J. Geophys. Res. 104(E11), 2697726995.
Filella, I. & Penuelas, J. (1994). The red edge and shape as indicators of plant chlorophyll content, biomass and hydric state. Int. J. Remote Sens. 15(7), 14591470.
Friedmann, E.I. (1982). Endolithic microorganisms in the Antarctic cold desert. Science 215, 10451053.
Gall, A., Yurkov, V., Vermeglio, A. & Robert, B. (1999). Certain species of the Proteobacteria possess unusual bacteriochlorophyll a environments in their light-harvesting proteins. Biospectroscopy 5, 338345.
Garbary, D.J., Van Thielen, N. & Miller, A. (1996). Endolithic algae from gypsum in Nova Scotia. J. Phycol. 32(Suppl.), 17.
Garrity, G.M. & Holt, J.G. (2001). Phylum BVI. Chloroflexi phy. nov. In Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, ed. Boone, D.R., Castenholz, R.W. & Garrity, R.W., pp. 427446. Springer, New York, NY, USA.
Gendrin, A., Mangold, N., Bibring, J-P., Langevin, Y., Gondet, B., Poulet, F., Bonello, G., Quantin, K., Mustard, J., Arvidson, R. & LeMouelic, S. (2005). Sulfates in Martian layered terrains: the OMEGA/Mars express view. Science 307, 15871589.
Gomez, F.M. et al. (2012). Habitability: where to look for life? Halophilic habitats: earth analogs to study Mars habitability. Planet. Space Sci. 68, 4855.
Grotzinger, J.P. et al. (2013). A habitable fluvio-lacustrine environment at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars. Science 10(1126), 117.
Hughes, K.A. & Lawley, B. (2003). A novel Antarctic microbial endolithic community within gypsum crusts. Environ. Microbiol. 5(7), 555565.
Holm, N.G. & Andersson, E. (2005). Hydrothermal simulation experiments as a tool for studies of the origin of life on earth and other terrestrial planets: a review. Astrobiology 5, 444460.
Kelly, C.A., Poole, J.A., Tazaz, A.M., Chanton, J.P. & Bebout, B.M. (2012). Substrate limitation for methanogenesis in hypersaline environments. Astrobiology 12(2), 8997.
Kleinegris, D.M.M., van Es, M.A., Janssen, M., Brandenburg, W.A. & Wijffels, R.H. (2010) Carotenoid fluorescence in Dunaliella salina . J. Appl. Phycol. 22(5), 645649.
Kraus, G.H. & Weis, E. (1991) Chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis: the basics. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 42, 313349.
Krishnamurthy, N. & Soots, V. (1971). Raman spectrum of gypsum. Can. J Phys. 49, 885896.
Kubo, Y., Ikeda, T., Yang, S.Y. & Tsuboi, M. (2000). Orientation of carotenoid molecules in the eyespot of algae: in situ polarized resonance Raman spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 11141119.
Langevin, Y., Poulet, F., Bibring, J-P. & Gondet, B. (2005). Sulfates in the north polar region of Mars detected by OMEGA/Mars express. Science 307, 15841586.
Leybourne, M.I., Denison, R.E., Cousens, B.L., Bezys, R.K., Gregoire, D.C., Boyle, D.R. & Dobrzanski, E. (2007). Geochemistry, geology, and isotopic (Sr, S, and B) composition of evaporites in the Lake St. Martin impact structure: new constraints on the age of melt rock formation. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 8, 122. DOI: 10.1029/2006GC001481.
Lim, D. (2002). Microbiology, 3rd edn. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, Iowa.
Lopez-Reyes, G. et al. (2013). Analysis of the scientific capabilities of the ExoMars Raman Laser Spectrometer instrument. Eur. J. Mineral. 25, 721733.
Lutz, M. (1974). Resonance Raman spectra of chlorophyll in solution. J. Raman Spectrosc. 2, 497516.
Marshall, C.P. & Marshall, A.O. (2010). The potential of Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of diagenetically transformed carotenoids. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 368(1922), 31373144.
Martinez-Frias, J., Amaral, G. & Vázquez, L. (2006). Astrobiological significance of minerals on Mars surface environment. Rev. Environ. Sci. Biotechnol. 5, 219231.
Massé, M., Bourgeois, O., Mouélic, S., Verpoorter, C., Le Deit, L. & Bibring, J.P. (2010). Martian polar and circum-polar sulfate-bearing deposits: sublimation tills derived from the north polar cap. Icarus 209, 434451.
McCabe, H.R. & Bannatyne, B.B. (1970). Lake St. Martin crypto-explosion crater and geology of surrounding area. Geolog. Surv. Manitoba 3, 7079.
McKay, C.P. (1997). The search for life on Mars. Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. 27(1–3), 263289.
Merzlyak, M.N., Gitelson, A.A., Chiykunova, O.B., Solovchenko, A.E. & Pogosyan, S.I. (2003). Application of reflectance spectroscopy for analysis of higher plant pigments. Russ. J. Plant Physiol. 50(5), 704710.
Milliken, R.E., Grotzinger, J.P. & Thomson, B.J. (2010). Paleoclimate of Mars as captured by the stratigraphic record in Gale Crater. Geophys R. Lett. 37, L04201.
Morris, R.V., Lauer, H.V., Lawson, C.A., Gibson, E.K., Nace, G.A. & Stewart, C. (1985). Spectral and other physicochemical properties of sub-micron powders of hematite, maghemite, magnetite, goethite, and lepidocrocite. J. Geo. Phys. Res. 90(B4), 31263144.
Murchie, S.L. et al. (2009). A synthesis of Martian aqueous mineralogy after 1 Mars year of observations from the Mars reconnaissance orbiter. J. Geo. Phys. Res. 114, E00D06.
Panieri, G., Lugli, S., Manzi, V., Palinska, K.A. & Roveri, M. (2008). Microbial communities in Messinian evaporite deposits of the Vena del Gesso (northern Apennines, Italy). Stratigraphy 5, 343352.
Panieri, G., Lugli, S., Manzi, V., Schreiber, B.C., Palinska, K.A. & Roveri, M. (2010). Ribosomal RNA gene fragments from fossilized cyanobacteria identified in primary gypsum from the late Miocene, Italy. Geobiology 8, 101111.
Preston, L.J. & Dartnell, L.R. (2014). Planetary habitability: lessons learned from terrestrial analogues. Int. J. Astrobiol. 13(01), 8198.
Poch, O., Noblet, A., Stalport, F., Correia, , Grand, N., Szopa, C. & Coll, P. (2013). Chemical evolution of organic molecules under Mars-like UV radiation conditions simulated in the laboratory with the MOMIE setup. Planet. Space Sci. 85, 188197.
Quesada, A., Vincent, W.F. & Lean, D.R.S. (1999). Community and pigment structure of Arctic cyanobacterial assemblages: the occurrence and distribution of UV-absorbing compounds. FEMS Microb. Ecol. 28, 315323.
Raulin, F. & McKay, C.P. (2002). The search for extraterrestrial life and prebiotic chemistry. Planet. Space Sci. 50, 655655.
Richardson, L.L. (1995). Remote sensing of algal bloom dynamics. BioScience 46(7), 492501.
Robert, B., Frank, H.A., Young, A.J., Britton, G. & Cogdell, R.J. (1999). The Photochemistry of Carotenoids, pp. 189. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Schloss, P.D., Westcott, S.L., Ryabin, T., Hall, J.R., Hartmann, M., Hollister, E.B., Lesniewski, R.A., Oakley, B.B., Parks, D.H., Robinson, C.J. et al. (2009). Introducing mothur: open-source, platform-independent, community-supported software for describing and comparing microbial communities. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75(23), 75377541.
Schloss, P.D., Gevers, D. & Westcott, S.L. (2011). Reducing the effects of PCR amplification and sequencing artifacts on 16S rRNA-based studies. PLoS ONE 6(12), e27310e27310.
Schmieder, M., Jourdan, F., Tohver, E., Mayers, C., Frew, A. & Cloutis, E. (2013). The age of the lake Saint Martin impact structure (Manitoba, Canada). 44th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (abstract).
Schopf, J.W., Farmer, J.D., Foster, I.S., Kudryavtsev, A.B., Gallardo, V.A. & Espinoza, C. (2012). Gypsum-permineralized microfossils and their relevence to the search for life on Mars. Astrobiology 12(7), 619633.
Seager, S., Turner, E.L., Schafer, J. & Ford, E.B. (2005). Vegetation's Red Edge: a possible spectroscopic biosignature for extraterrestrial life. Astrobiology 5(3), 372389.
Seckback, J. (Ed). (1999). Enigmatic Microorganisms and Life in Extreme Environments. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Sefton-Nash, E., Catling, D.C., Wood, S.E., Grindrod, P.M. & Teanby, N.A. (2012). Topographic, spectral, and thermal inertia analysis of interior layered deposits in Iani Chaos, Mars. Icarus 221, 2042.
Sherman, D.M. & Waite, T.D. (1985). Electronic spectra of Fe3+ oxides and oxide hydroxides in the near IR to UV. Am. Mineral. 70, 12621269.
Shibata, Y., Saga, Y., Tamiaki, H. & Itoh, S. (2007). Polarized fluorescence of aggregated bacteriochlorophyll c and baseplate bacteriochlorophyll a in single chlorosomes isolated from Chloroflexus aurantiacus . Am. Chem. Soc. 46, 70627068.
Sigler, W.V., Bachofen, R. & Zeyer, J. (2003). Molecular characterization of endolithic cyanobacteria inhabiting exposed dolomite in central Switzerland. Environ. Microbiol. 5(7), 618627.
Simoneit, B.R.T. (2004). Prebiotic organic synthesis under hydrothermal conditions: an overview. Adv. Space Res. 33, 8894.
Squier, A.H., Hodgson, D.A. & Keely, B.J. (2004). A critical assessment of the analysis and distributions of scytonemin and related UV screening pigments in sediments. Org. Geochem. 35, 12211228.
Squyres, S.W. et al. (2012). Ancient impact and aqueous processes at Endeavour Crater, Mars. Science 336, 570576.
Stivaletta, N., López-García, P., Boihem, L. & Barbieri, R. (2010). Biomarkers of endolithic communities within gypsum crusts (Southern Tunisia). Geomicrobiol. J. 27, 101110.
Stoker, C.R. & Bullock, M.A. (1997). Organic degradation under simulated Martian conditions. J. Geo. Phys. Res. 102(E5), 1088110888.
Stromberg, J.M., Applin, D.M., Cloutis, E.A., Rice, M., Berard, G. & Mann, P. (2014). The persistence of a chlorophyll spectral bio signature from Martian evaporite and spring analogues under Mars-like conditions. Int. J. Astrobiol. 13(3), 203223.
Strommen, D.P. & Nakamoto, K. (1977). Resonance Raman spectroscopy. J. Chem. Educ. 54, 474.
Summons, R.E., Amend, J.P., Bish, D., Buick, R., Cody, G.D., Des Marais, D.J., Dromart, G., Eigenbrode, J.L., Knoll, A.H. & Sumner, D.Y. (2011). Preservation of Martian organic and environmental records: final repost of the Mars biosignature working group. Astrobiology 22(2), 157181.
Suo, Z., Avci, R., Schweitzer, M.H. & Deliorman, M. (2007). Porphyrin as an ideal biomarker in the search for extraterrestrial life. Astrobiology 7(4), 605615.
van Amerongen, H., Vasemel, H. & van Grondelle, R. (1988). Linear dichroism of chlorosomes from Chloroflexus aurantiacus in compressed gels and electric fields. Biophys. J. 54, 6576.
van Amerongen, H., van Haeringen, B., van Gurp, M. & van Grondelle, R. (1991). Polarized fluorescence measurements on ordered photosynthetic antenna complexes. Biophys. J. 59, 9921001.
Vasmel, H., van Dorssen, R.J., Vasmel, H. & Amesz, J. (1986) Pigment organization and energy transfer in the green photosynthetic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus . Photosynth. Res. 9, 3345.
Villar, S.E., Edwards, H.G.M. & Benning, L.G. (2006). Raman spectroscopic and scanning electron microscopic analysis of a novel biological colonization of volcanic rocks. Icarus 184, 158169.
Wardlaw, N.C., Stauffer, M.R. & Hoque, M. (1969). Striations, giants grooves, and superposed drag folds, Interlake area, Manitoba. Can. J. Earth Sci. 6(4), 577593.
Wierzchos, J., Ascaso, C. & McKay, C.P. (2006). Endolithic cyanobacteria in halite rocks from the hyper arid core of the Atacama Desert. Astrobiology 6(3), 415422.
Wierzchos, J., Mara, B.C.A., De Los Rios, A., Davila, A.F., Sanchez-Almazo, I.M., Artieda, O., Wierzchos, K., Gomez-Silva, B., McKay, C.P. & Ascaso, C. (2011). Microbial colonization of Ca-sulfate crusts in the hyper arid core of the Atacama Desert: implications for the search for life on Mars. Geobiology 9, 4460.
Wray, J.J. et al. (2010). Identification of the Ca-sulfate bassanite in Mawrth Vallis, Mars. Icarus 209, 416421.
Wray, J.J. et al. (2011). Columbus crater and other possible groundwater-fed paleolakes of Terra Sirenum, Mars. J. Geophys. Res. 116, E01001.
Wynn-Williams, D.D., Edwards, H.G.M. & Garcia-Pichel, F. (1999). Functional biomolecules of Antarctic stromatolitic and endolithic cyanobacterial communities. Eur. J. Phycol. 34(4), 381391.
Yamada, T., Sekiguchi, Y., Hanada, S., Imachi, H., Ohashi, A., Harada, H. & Kamagata, Y. (2006). Anaerolinea thermolimosa sp. nov., Levilinea saccharolytica gen. nov., sp. nov. and Leptolinea tardivitalis gen. nov., sp. nov., novel filamentous anaerobes, and description of the new classes Anaerolineae classis nov. and Caldilineae classis nov. in the bacterial phylum Chloroflexi . Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 56(6), 13311340.
Ziolkowski, L.A., Mykytczuk, N.C.S., Omelon, C.R., Johnson, H., Whyte, L.G. & Slater, G.F. (2013). Arctic gypsum endoliths: a biogeochemical characterization of a viable and active microbial community. Biogeosciences 10(11), 76617675.


Gypsum-hosted endolithic communities of the Lake St. Martin impact structure, Manitoba, Canada: spectroscopic detectability and implications for Mars

  • T. Rhind (a1), J. Ronholm (a2), B. Berg (a1), P. Mann (a1), D. Applin (a1), J. Stromberg (a3), R. Sharma (a1), L.G. Whyte (a2) and E.A. Cloutis (a1)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed