Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-559fc8cf4f-rz424 Total loading time: 0.336 Render date: 2021-02-25T09:17:23.252Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Direct microwave-assisted amino acid synthesis by reaction of succinic acid and ammonia in the presence of magnetite

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 June 2013

Nan Jiang
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023, P.R. China e-mail: liuxy@jlu.edu.cn
Dandan Liu
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023, P.R. China e-mail: liuxy@jlu.edu.cn
Weiguang Shi
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023, P.R. China e-mail: liuxy@jlu.edu.cn
Yingjie Hua
Affiliation:
School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158, P.R. China
Chongtai Wang
Affiliation:
School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158, P.R. China
Xiaoyang Liu
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023, P.R. China e-mail: liuxy@jlu.edu.cn
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Since the discovery of submarine hot vents in the late 1970s, it has been postulated that submarine hydrothermal environments would be suitable for emergence of life on Earth. To simulate warm spring conditions, we designed a series of microwave-assisted amino acid synthesis involving direct reactions between succinic acid and ammonia in the presence of the magnetite catalyst. These reactions which generated aspartic acid and glycine were carried out under mild temperatures and pressures (90–180 °C, 4–19 bar). We studied this specific reaction inasmuch as succinic acid and ammonia were traditionally identified as prebiotic compounds in primitive deep-sea hydrothermal systems on Earth. The experimental results were discussed in both biochemical and geochemical context to offer a possible route for abiotic amino acid synthesis. With extremely diluted starting materials (0.002 M carboxylic acid and 0.002 M ammonia) and catalyst loading, an obvious temperature dependency was observed in both cases [neither product was detected at 90 °C in comparison with 21.08 μmol L−1 (aspartic acid) and 70.25 umol L−1 (glycine) in 180 °C]. However, an opposite trend presented for reaction time factor, namely a positive correlation for glycine, but a negative one for aspartic acid.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2013 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Andersson, E. & Holm, N.G. (2000). The stability of some selected amino acids under attempted redox constrained hydrothermal conditions. Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. 30, 923.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baross, J.A. & Hoffman, S.E. (1985). Submarine hydrothermal vents and associated gradient environments as sites for the origin and evolution of life. Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. 15, 327345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bernhardt, G., Lüdemann, H.-D. & Jaenicke, R. (1984). Biomolecules are unstable under ‘black smoker’ conditions. Naturwissenschaften 71, 583586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chou, I.-M. (1987). Oxygen buffer and hydrogen sensor techniques at elevated pressures and temperatures. In Hydrothermal Experimental Techniques, ed. Ulmer, G.C. & Barnes, H.L., pp. 6199. Wiley-Interscience, New York.Google Scholar
Cody, G.D., Boctor, N.Z., Hazen, R.M., Brandes, J.A., Morowitz, H.J. & Yoder, H.S. Jr. (2001). Geochemical roots of autotrophic carbon fixation: hydrothermal experiments in the system citric acid, H2O-(±Fes)-(±NiS). Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 65, 35573576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Corliss, J.B. et al. (1979). Submarine thermal springs on the Galápagos rift. Science 203, 10731083.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Corliss, J.B., Baross, J.A. & Hoffman, S.E. (1981). An hypothesis concerning the relationship between submarine hot springs and the origin of life on Earth. Oceanologica Acta SP, 5969.Google Scholar
Fein, J.B., Hemley, J.J., D'Angelo, W.M., Komninou, A. & Sverjensky, D.A. (1992). Experimental study of iron-chloride complexing in hydrothermal fluids. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 56, 31793190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Foustoukos, D.I. & Seyfried, W.E. Jr. (2004). Hydrocarbons in hydrothermal vent fluids: the role of chromium-bearing catalysts. Science 304, 10021005.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fox, S.W. & Windsor, C.R. (1970). Synthesis of amino acids by the heating of formaldehyde and ammonia. Science 170, 984986.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Früh-Green, G.L., Kelley, D.S., Bernasconi, S.M., Karson, J.A., Ludwig, K.A., Butterfield, D.A., Boschi, C. & Proskurowski, G. (2003). 30 000 years of hydrothermal activity at the Lost City vent field. Science 301, 495498.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hennet, R.J.-C., Holm, N.G. & Engel, M.H. (1992). Abiotic synthesis of amino acids under hydrothermal conditions and the origin of life: A perpetual phenomenon? Naturwissenschaften 79, 361365.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Horita, J. & Berndt, M.E. (1999). Abiogenic methane formation and isotopic fractionation under hydrothermal conditions. Science 285, 10551057.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Huber, C. & Wächtershäuser, G. (1998). Peptide by activation of amino acids with CO on (Ni, Fe)S surfaces: implications for the origin of life. Science 281, 670672.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Huebner, J.S. (1971). Buffering techniques for hydrostatic systems at elevated pressures. In Research Techniques for High Pressure and High Temperature, ed. Ulmer, G.C., pp. 123177. Springer, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Islam, M.N., Kaneko, T. & Kobayashi, K. (2003). Reaction of amino acids in a supercritical water-flow reactor simulating submarine hydrothermal systems. Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 76, 11711178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kremsner, J.M. & Kappe, C.O. (2005). Microwave-assisted organic synthesis in near-critical water at 300 °C —a proof-of-concept study. Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2005, 36723679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lawless, J.G. & Boynton, C.D. (1973). Thermal synthesis of amino acids from a simulated primitive atmosphere. Nature 243, 405407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marshall, W.L. (1994). Hydrothermal synthesis of amino acids. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 58, 20992106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, S.L. (1953). A production of amino acids under possible primitive Earth conditions. Science 117, 528529.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Miller, S.L. & Van Trump, J.E. (1981). The strecker synthesis in the primitive ocean. In Origins of Life, ed. Wolman, Y., pp. 135141. Reidel Publishing Company, Dodrecht.Google Scholar
Plankensteiner, K., Reiner, H., Schranz, B. & Rode, B.M. (2004). Prebiotic formation of amino acids in a neutral atmosphere by electric discharge. Angewandte Chemie 43, 18861888.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ponnamperuma, C. & Mack, R. (1965). Nucleotide synthesis under possible primitive Earth conditions. Science 148, 12211223.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ruiz-Bermejo, M., Menor-Salván, C., Osuna-Esteban, S. & Veintemillas-Verdaguer, S. (2007). The effects of ferrous and other ions on the abiotic formation of biomolecules using aqueous aerosols and spark discharges. Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. 37, 507521.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schulte, M. & Shock, E. (1995). Thermodynamics of strecker synthesis in hydrothermal systems. Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. 25, 161173.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shock, E.L. (1990). Geochemical constraints on the origin of organic compounds in hydrothermal systems. Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. 20, 331367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shock, E.L. (1992). Chemical environments of submarine hydrothermal systems. Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. 22, 67107.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Simoneit, B.R.T. (1992). Aqueous organic geochemistry at high temperature/high pressure. Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. 22, 4365.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Szatmari, P. (1989). Petroleum formation by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in plate techtonics. Am. Assoc. Petrol Geol. Bull. 73, 989998.Google Scholar
White, R.H. (1984). Hydrolytic stability of biomolecules at high temperatures and its implications for life at 250 °C. Nature 310, 430432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yanagawa, H. & Kojima, K. (1985). Thermophilic microspheres of peptide-like polymers and silicates formed at 250 °C. J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 97, 15211524.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 6
Total number of PDF views: 42 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 25th February 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Direct microwave-assisted amino acid synthesis by reaction of succinic acid and ammonia in the presence of magnetite
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Direct microwave-assisted amino acid synthesis by reaction of succinic acid and ammonia in the presence of magnetite
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Direct microwave-assisted amino acid synthesis by reaction of succinic acid and ammonia in the presence of magnetite
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *