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Planets in Multiple-Star Systems: Properties and Detections

  • S. Udry (a1), A. Eggenberger (a1), M. Mayor (a1), T. Mazeh (a2) and S. Zucker (a1) (a2)...

Abstract

Orbital properties of extra-solar planets are briefly recalled and compared with equivalent features of stellar binaries. Similarities and differences are discussed. Among the more than 115 extra-solar planets discovered to date, 19 are orbiting a component of a binary system. We discuss the properties of this subsample and compare them with the equivalent characteristics of planets around single stars. Differences in the mass-period-eccentricity distributions are observed: exoplanets with m 2 sin i > 2 MJup and P≤ 40-100 days are in binaries and present low eccentricities. In the context of the migration scenario, these characteristics are tentatively explained in the light of recent simulations of planet-disk interactions showing an increased accretion and migration rates of planets in case an additional perturbing close stellar companion is present in the system. Finally, different observational approaches to find planets in long-period spectroscopic binaries aiming to improve the still poor available statistics are presented. An important result is the detection of a planetary companion in the HD 41004 triple system.

Resumen

Se presentan brevemente las propiedades orbitales de los planetas extrasolares, y se comparan con las de las estrellas binarias. Se discuten las similitudes y las diferencias entre ambas. Entre los más de 115 planetas extrasolares descubiertos hasta ahora, 19 orbitan en torno a una componente de un sistema binario. Discutimos las propiedades de esta sub-muestra, y las comparamos con las de los planetas que orbitan estrellas sencillas. Se observan diferencias en la distribución de masas-períodos-excentricidades; los exoplanetas con m 2 sin i > 2 MJup y P ≤ 40-100 días están en binarias, y presentan excentricidades bajas. En el escenario de migración, estas características se explican tentativamente a la luz de simulaciones recientes de las interacciones planeta-disco, las cuales muestran tasas crecientes de acreción y migración en presencia de la perturbación de una compañera estelar cercana. También se presentan distintos enfoques observacionales que tienden a mejorar la estadística disponible, aún pobre. Un resultado importante es la detección de una compañera planetaria en el sistema triple HD 41004.

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