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Astronomical Aspects of “Pranotomongso” of The 19th Century Central Java

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 April 2016

Nathanael Daldjoeni
Affiliation:
Universitas Satya Wacana, Salatiga Indonesia
Bambang Hidayat
Affiliation:
Bosscha Observatory, ITB, Lembang, Java, Indonesia
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Extract

It has been shown by Aveny (1981) that the development of indigenous astronomical systems in tropical cultures, whether the motive was religious or practical, centered toward a reference system consisting of zenith and nadir as poles and the horizon as a fundamental reference circle. Such a reference system differs remarkably to the celestial pole-equator (or ecliptic) systems employed by civilizations in temperate zones (also see Brennand, 1896; Stencel, et.al., 1976).

In order to obtain more insight of the view expounded by Aveny (1981) the authors undertook a test case study of the astronomically related time-keeping practice in Java. “Pranotomongso” has been chosen as it is well documented since 1855. According to Daldjoeni (1984) the “pranotomongso” (literaly means the arrangements of seasons) functions well as a practical guide for agricultural activities for the rural peasants in Central Java.

Type
Mediaeval Astronomy
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1987

References

Aveny, A.F. (1981). “Tropical Archeoastronomy”. Science, 213, 161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brennand, W. (1896). “Hindu Astronomy”. Publ.: Chas, Straker and Sons Ltd., London, 1896, p. 3781.Google Scholar
Daldjoeni, N. (1983). “Penanggalan Pertanian Jawa Pranatamangsa”, in Javanology, Proyek, Dept. of Education and Culture, No. 15, 1983 (In Indonesian).Google Scholar
Daldjoeni, N. (1984). The Environmentalist, Vol. 4, Suppl. 7, 1984.Google Scholar
Maas, A. (1924). “Sternkunde und Sterndeuterei im malaiischen Archipel”. Tijdschrift voor Taal, Land en Volkenkunde, Deel LXIV, Koninklijke Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen, Batavia (now Jakarta), 1924.Google Scholar
Pannekoek, A. (1961). A History of Astronomy; Publ. George Allen and Unwin Ltd., London, 1961, p. 22.Google Scholar
Stencel, Robert; Gifford, Fred and Moron, Eleanor. (1976). In “Astronomy and Cosmology at Angkor Wat”. Science, 193, 281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thiele, Gisela. (1974). “Einiges iiber das Kalenderwesens Indonesians”. Sterne und Weltraum, no. 8/9, 1974, 266.Google Scholar
Van Hien, H.A. (1922). De Javaansche Geestenwerelds. Op. cit. Daldjoeni 1984, p. 16 (Original in Dutch).Google Scholar

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