2. Pittet, D, Dharan, S, Touveneau, S, Sauvan, V, Perneger, TV. Bacterial contamination of the hands of hospital staff during routine patient care. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:821–826.
3. Schabrun, S, Chipchase, L. Healthcare equipment as a source of nosocomial infection: a systematic review. J Hosp Infect 2006;63:239–245.
4. Longtin, Y, Schneider, A, Tschopp, C, et al. Contamination of stethoscopes and physicians’ hands after a physical examination. Mayo Clin Proc 2014;89:291–299.
5. Ali, S, Moore, G, Wilson, AP. Effect of surface coating and finish upon the cleanability of bed rails and the spread of Staphylococcus aureus
. J Hosp Infect 2012;80:192–198.
6. Bardell, D. Hand-to-hand transmission of herpes simplex virus type 1. Microbios 1989;59:93–100.
7. Sattar, SA, Springthorpe, S, Mani, S, et al. Transfer of bacteria from fabrics to hands and other fabrics: development and application of a quantitative method using Staphylococcus aureus as a model. J Appl Microbiol 2001;90:962–970.
8. Mbithi, JN, Springthorpe, VS, Boulet, JR, Sattar, SA. Survival of hepatitis A virus on human hands and its transfer on contact with animate and inanimate surfaces. J Clin Microbiol 1992;30:757–763.
9. Cohen, B, Hyman, S, Rosenberg, L, Larson, E. Frequency of patient contact with health care personnel and visitors: implications for infection prevention. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf 2012;38:560–565.
10. Labeau, S, Vandijck, D, Rello, J, et al. Evidence-based guidelines for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia: results of a knowledge test among European intensive care nurses. J Hosp Infect 2008;70:180–185.
11. Moher, D, Altman, DG, Liberati, A, Tetzlaff, J. PRISMA statement. Epidemiology 2011;22:128author reply 128.
12. Larson, EL, Strom, MS, Evans, CA. Analysis of three variables in sampling solutions used to assay bacteria of hands: type of solution, use of antiseptic neutralizers, and solution temperature. J Clin Microbiol 1980;12:355–360.
13. Downs, SH, Black, N. The feasibility of creating a checklist for the assessment of the methodological quality both of randomised and non-randomised studies of health care interventions. J Epidemiol Community Health 1998;52:377–384.
14. Ludlam, HA, Swayne, RL, Kearns, AM, et al. Evidence from a UK teaching hospital that MRSA is primarily transmitted by the hands of healthcare workers. J Hosp Infect 2010;74:296–299.
15. Ojajarvi, J. Effectiveness of hand washing and disinfection methods in removing transient bacteria after patient nursing. J Hyg (Lond) 1980;85:193–203.
17. McHugh, ML. Interrater reliability: the kappa statistic. Biochem Med (Zagreb) 2012;22:276–282.
18. Jeske, HC, Tiefenthaler, W, Hohlrieder, M, Hinterberger, G, Benzer, A. Bacterial contamination of anaesthetists’ hands by personal mobile phone and fixed phone use in the operating theatre. Anaesthesia 2007;62:904–906.
19. Ray, AJ, Hoyen, CK, Taub, TF, Eckstein, EC, Donskey, CJ. Nosocomial transmission of vancomycin-resistant enterococci from surfaces. JAMA 2002;287:1400–1401.
20. Frazee, BW, Fahimi, J, Lambert, L, Nagdev, A. Emergency department ultrasonographic probe contamination and experimental model of probe disinfection. Ann Emerg Med 2011;58:56–63.
21. Ohara, T, Itoh, Y, Itoh, K. Ultrasound instruments as possible vectors of staphylococcal infection. J Hosp Infect 1998;40:73–77.
22. Zachary, KC, Bayne, PS, Morrison, VJ, Ford, DS, Silver, LC, Hooper, DC. Contamination of gowns, gloves, and stethoscopes with vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2001;22:560–564.
23. Tschopp, C, Schneider, A, Longtin, Y, Renzi, G, Schrenzel, J, Pittet, D. Predictors of heavy stethoscope contamination following a physical examination. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:673–679.
24. Duckro, AN, Blom, DW, Lyle, EA, Weinstein, RA, Hayden, MK. Transfer of vancomycin-resistant enterococci via health care worker hands. Arch Intern Med 2005;165:302–307.
25. Snyder, GM, Thom, KA, Furuno, JP, et al. Detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci on the gowns and gloves of healthcare workers. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008;29:583–589.
26. Ilmarinen, T, Auvinen, E, Hiltunen-Back, E, Ranki, A, Aaltonen, LM, Pitkaranta, A. Transmission of human papillomavirus DNA from patient to surgical masks, gloves and oral mucosa of medical personnel during treatment of laryngeal papillomas and genital warts. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2012;269:2367–2371.
27. Grabsch, EA, Burrell, LJ, Padiglione, A, O’Keeffe, JM, Ballard, S, Grayson, ML. Risk of environmental and healthcare worker contamination with vancomycin-resistant enterococci during outpatient procedures and hemodialysis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2006;27:287–293.
28. Morgan, DJ, Liang, SY, Smith, CL, et al. Frequent multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii contamination of gloves, gowns, and hands of healthcare workers. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010;31:716–721.
29. Morgan, DJ, Rogawski, E, Thom, KA, et al. Transfer of multidrug-resistant bacteria to healthcare workers’ gloves and gowns after patient contact increases with environmental contamination. Crit Care Med 2012;40:1045–1051.
30. Roghmann, MC, Johnson, JK, Sorkin, JD, et al. Transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to healthcare worker gowns and gloves during care of nursing home residents. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;36:1050–1057.
31. Bache, SE, Maclean, M, Gettinby, G, Anderson, JG, MacGregor, SJ, Taggart, I. Quantifying bacterial transfer from patients to staff during burns dressing and bed changes: implications for infection control. Burns 2013;39:220–228.
32. Loftus, RW, Muffly, MK, Brown, JR, et al. Hand contamination of anesthesia providers is an important risk factor for intraoperative bacterial transmission. Anesth Analg 2011;112:98–105.
33. Heid, F, Bender, C, Gervais, H, Schmeck, J, Kohnen, W, Noppens, R. Microbial contamination of anesthetic syringes in relation to different handling habits. Am J Infect Control 2016;44:e15–e17.
34. Olsen, RJ, Lynch, P, Coyle, MB, Cummings, J, Bokete, T, Stamm, WE. Examination gloves as barriers to hand contamination in clinical practice. JAMA 1993;270:350–353.
35. Pessoa-Silva, CL, Dharan, S, Hugonnet, S, et al. Dynamics of bacterial hand contamination during routine neonatal care. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2004;25:192–197.
36. Tenorio, AR, Badri, SM, Sahgal, NB, et al. Effectiveness of gloves in the prevention of hand carriage of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus species by health care workers after patient care. Clin Infect Dis 2001;32:826–829.
37. Rock, C, Thom, KA, Masnick, M, Johnson, JK, Harris, AD, Morgan, DJ. Frequency of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing and non-KPC-producing Klebsiella species contamination of healthcare workers and the environment. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014;35:426–429.
38. Sanderson, PJ, Weissler, S. Recovery of coliforms from the hands of nurses and patients: activities leading to contamination. J Hosp Infect 1992;21:85–93.
40. Pittet, D, Allegranzi, B, Sax, H, et al. Evidence-based model for hand transmission during patient care and the role of improved practices. Lancet Infect Dis 2006;6:641–652.
41. Grayson, ML, Russo, PL, Cruickshank, M, et al. Outcomes from the first 2 years of the Australian National Hand Hygiene Initiative. Med J Aust 2011;195:615–619.
42. Otter, JA, Yezli, S, French, GL. The role played by contaminated surfaces in the transmission of nosocomial pathogens. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2011;32:687–699.
43. Hayden, MK, Blom, DW, Lyle, EA, Moore, CG, Weinstein, RA. Risk of hand or glove contamination after contact with patients colonized with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus or the colonized patients’ environment. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008;29:149–154.
44. Stiefel, U, Cadnum, JL, Eckstein, BC, Guerrero, DM, Tima, MA, Donskey, CJ. Contamination of hands with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus after contact with environmental surfaces and after contact with the skin of colonized patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2011;32:185–187.
45. Boyce, JM, Potter-Bynoe, G, Chenevert, C, King, T. Environmental contamination due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: possible infection control implications. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1997;18:622–627.
46. Guerrero, DM, Nerandzic, MM, Jury, LA, Jinno, S, Chang, S, Donskey, CJ. Acquisition of spores on gloved hands after contact with the skin of patients with Clostridium difficile infection and with environmental surfaces in their rooms. Am J Infect Control 2012;40:556–558.
47. WIlson, JA, Loveday, HP, Hoffman, PN, Pratt, RJ. Uniform: an evidence review of the microbiological significance of uniforms and uniform policy in the prevention and control of healthcare-associated infections. Report to the Department of Health (England). J Hosp Infect 2007;66:301–307.
48. Jullian-Desayes, I, Landelle, C, Mallaret, MR, Brun-Buisson, C, Barbut, F.
Clostridium difficile contamination of health care workers’ hands and its potential contribution to the spread of infection: review of the literature. Am J Infect Control 2017;45:51–58.
49. Kwok, YLA, Gralton, J, McLaws, ML. Face touching: a frequent habit that has implications for hand hygiene. Am J Infect Control 2015;43:112–114.
50. Casewell, M, Phillips, I. Hands as route of transmission for Klebsiella species. Br Med J 1977;2:1315–1317.
51. Grunwald, MH, Amichai, B, Shemer, A. Fingertip contamination after a brief touch of tinea capitis lesions caused by Microsporum canis
. Br J Dermatol 2015;172:291–292.
52. Hamburger, M Jr.. Transfer of beta hemolytic streptococci by shaking hands. Am J Med 1947;2:23–25.
53. Heid, F, Bender, C, Gervais, H, Schmeck, J, Kohnen, W, Noppens, R. Microbial contamination of anesthetic syringes in relation to different handling habits. Am J Infect Control 2016;44:e15–e17.