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Strategies to Enhance Adoption of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Prevention Interventions: A Systematic Literature Review

  • Jente M. Goutier (a1), Christine G. Holzmueller (a1), Kelsey C. Edwards (a1), Michael Klompas (a2), Kathleen Speck (a1) and Sean M. Berenholtz (a1) (a3)...



Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is among the most lethal of all healthcare-associated infections. Guidelines summarize interventions to prevent VAP, but translating recommendations into practice is an art unto itself.


Summarize strategies to enhance adoption of VAP prevention interventions.


We conducted a systematic literature review of articles in the MEDLINE database published between 2002 and 2012. We selected articles on the basis of specific inclusion criteria. We used structured forms to abstract implementation strategies and inserted them into the “engage, educate, execute, and evaluate” framework.


Twenty-seven articles met our inclusion criteria. Engagement strategies included multidisciplinary teamwork, involvement of local champions, and networking among peers. Educational strategies included training sessions and developing succinct summaries of the evidence. Execution strategies included standardization of care processes and building redundancies into routine care. Evaluation strategies included measuring performance and providing feedback to staff.


We summarized and organized practical implementation strategies in a framework to enhance adoption of recommended evidence-based practices. We believe this work fills an important void in most clinical practice guidelines, and broad use of these strategies may expedite VAP reduction efforts.


Corresponding author

Armstrong Institute for Patent Safety and Quality, Johns Hopkins University, 750 East Pratt Street, 15th Floor, Baltimore, MD 21202 (


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Strategies to Enhance Adoption of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Prevention Interventions: A Systematic Literature Review

  • Jente M. Goutier (a1), Christine G. Holzmueller (a1), Kelsey C. Edwards (a1), Michael Klompas (a2), Kathleen Speck (a1) and Sean M. Berenholtz (a1) (a3)...


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